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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 64

of 'Overview of the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children and adolescents'

Prognostic factors for leukemic induction failure in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and outcome after salvage therapy: the FRALLE 93 study.
Oudot C, Auclerc MF, Levy V, Porcher R, Piguet C, Perel Y, Gandemer V, Debre M, Vermylen C, Pautard B, Berger C, Schmitt C, Leblanc T, Cayuela JM, Socie G, Michel G, Leverger G, Baruchel A
J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(9):1496.
PURPOSE: To identify prognostic factors and to evaluate the outcome of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) failure after induction therapy.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between June 1993 and December 1999, 1,395 leukemic children were included in the French Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia 93 study.
RESULTS: Fifty-three patients (3.8%) had a leukemic induction failure (LIF) after three- or four-drug induction therapy. In univariate analysis, high WBC count (P = .001), mediastinal mass (P = .017), T-cell phenotype (T-ALL; P = .001), t(9;22) translocation (P = .001), and a slow early response (at day 8 and/or on day 21, P = .001) were predictive of LIF. The following three prognostic groups for LIF were identified by multivariate analysis: a low-risk group with B-cell progenitor (BCP) ALL without t(9;22) (odds ratio [OR]= 1), an intermediate-risk group with T-ALL and a mediastinal mass (OR = 7.4, P<.0001), and a high-riskgroup with BCP-ALL and t(9;22) or T-ALL without a mediastinal mass (OR = 28.4, P<.0001). Complete remission (CR) was subsequently obtained in 43 patients (81%). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of the 53 patients was 30% +/- 6%. The 5-year OS rate among allogeneic graft recipients, autologous graft recipients, and after chemotherapy were 30.4% +/- 9.6% (50% +/- 26% after genoidentical transplantation), 50% +/- 17.7%, and 41.7% +/- 14.2%, respectively (P = .18). Fourteen patients (26%) were still in first CR after a median of 83 months (range, 53 to 117 months).
CONCLUSION: Three risk categories for LIF in children with ALL were identified. Approximately one third of patients with LIF can be successfully treated with salvage therapy overall. Subsequent CR after LIF is mandatory for cure.
Service d'Hématologie et Oncologie Pédiatrique, Hôpital Mère-Enfant, Limoges, France.