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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 55

of 'Overview of the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children and adolescents'

Human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Children's Cancer Group Study.
Heath JA, Steinherz PG, Altman A, Sather H, Jhanwar S, Halpern S, Pieters R, Shah N, Steinherz L, Tannous R, Terry W, Trigg ME, Children's Cancer Group
J Clin Oncol. 2003;21(8):1612.
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on hematopoietic toxicities, supportive care requirements, time to complete intensive therapy, and event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) in children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (HR-ALL).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 287 children with HR-ALL were randomly assigned to intensive chemotherapy regimens (New York I [NY I]or NY II) as part of the Children's Cancer Group (CCG)-1901 protocol. The induction phases consisted of five drugs (vincristine, prednisone, l-asparaginase, daunorubicin, and cyclophosphamide). Initial consolidation comprised six-agent chemotherapy combined with 18 Gy of total-brain irradiation. Patients were randomly assigned to receive G-CSF (5 microg/kg/day) during either induction or initial consolidation. A crossover study analysis was done on the 259 patients who completed both phases of therapy.
RESULTS: The mean time to neutrophil recovery (>/= 0.5 x 109/L) was reduced with G-CSF (16.7 v 19.1 days, P =.0003); however, patients who received G-CSF did not have significantly reduced episodes of febrile neutropenia (149 v 164, P =.41), positive blood cultures (57 v 61, P =.66), or serious infections (75 v 79, P =.62). Hospitalization (14.0 v 13.9 days, P =.87) and induction therapy completion times (NY I, 30.3 v 31.3 days, P =.11; NY II, 33.4 v 32.3 days, P =.40) were not significantly altered. There were no differences in 6-year EFS (P =.24) or OS (P =.54) between patients receiving or not receiving G-CSF on CCG-1901, NY I and NY II.
CONCLUSION: Children with high-risk ALL do not appear to benefit from prophylactic G-CSF.
Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA. steinhep@mskcc.org