Medline ® Abstracts for References 1-4
of 'Overview of the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children and adolescents'
SEER Cancer Statistics Review, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD. Available at: http://seer.cancer.gov/faststats/selections.php?#Output (Accessed on April 04, 2016).
no abstract available
Childhood cancer survival trends in Europe: a EUROCARE Working Group study.
Gatta G, Capocaccia R, Stiller C, Kaatsch P, Berrino F, Terenziani M, EUROCARE Working Group
J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(16):3742.
PURPOSE: EUROCARE collected data from population-based cancer registries in 20 European countries. We used this data to compare childhood cancer survival time trends in Europe.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Survival in 44,129 children diagnosed under the age of 15 years during 1983 to 1994 was analyzed. Sex- and age-adjusted 5-year survival trends for 10 common cancers and for all cancers combined were estimated for five regions (West Germany, the United Kingdom, Eastern Europe, Nordic countries, and West and South Europe) and Europe as a whole. Europe-wide trends for 14 rare cancers were estimated.
RESULTS: For all cancers combined, 5-year survival increased from 65% for diagnoses in 1983 to 1985 to 75% in 1992 to 1994. Survival improved for all individual cancers except melanoma, osteosarcoma, and thyroid carcinoma; although for retinoblastoma, chondrosarcoma, and fibrosarcoma, improvements were not significant. The most marked improvements (50% to 66%) occurred in Eastern Europe. For common cancers, the greatest improvements were for leukemia and lymphomas, with risk ofdying reducing significantly by 5% to 6% per year. Survival for CNS tumors improved significantly from 57% to 65%, with risk reducing by 3% per year. Risk reduced by 4% per year for neuroblastoma and 3% per year for Wilms' tumor and rhabdomyosarcoma. The survival gap between regions reduced over the period, particularly for acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, CNS tumors, and rhabdomyosarcoma. For rare Burkitt's lymphoma, hepatoblastoma, gonadal germ cell tumors, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, risk reductions were at least 10% per year.
CONCLUSION: These gratifying improvements in survival can often be plausibly related to advances in treatment. The prevalence of European adults with a history of childhood cancer will inevitably increase.
Epidemiology Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milano, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
Cancer statistics, 2011: the impact of eliminating socioeconomic and racial disparities on premature cancer deaths.
Siegel R, Ward E, Brawley O, Jemal A
CA Cancer J Clin. 2011;61(4):212.
Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths expected in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival based on incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. A total of 1,596,670 new cancer cases and 571,950 deaths from cancer are projected to occur in the United States in 2011. Overall cancer incidence rates were stable in men in the most recent time period after decreasing by 1.9% per year from 2001 to 2005; in women, incidence rates have been declining by 0.6% annually since 1998. Overall cancer death rates decreased in all racial/ethnic groups in both men and women from 1998 through 2007, with the exception of American Indian/Alaska Native women, in whom rates were stable. African American and Hispanic men showed the largest annual decreases in cancer death rates during this time period (2.6% and 2.5%, respectively). Lung cancer death rates showed a significant decline in women after continuously increasing since the 1930s. The reduction in the overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of about 898,000 deaths from cancer. However, this progress has not benefitted all segments of the population equally; cancer death rates for individuals with the least education are more than twice those of the most educated. The elimination of educational and racial disparities could potentially have avoided about 37% (60,370) of the premature cancer deaths among individuals aged 25 to 64 years in 2007 alone. Further progress can be accelerated by applying existing cancer control knowledge across all segments of the population with an emphasis on those groups in the lowest socioeconomic bracket. CA Cancer J Clin 2011.©2011 American Cancer Society.
Surveillance Information, Surveillance Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA 30303-1002, USA.
Treating childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia without cranial irradiation.
Pui CH, Campana D, Pei D, Bowman WP, Sandlund JT, Kaste SC, Ribeiro RC, Rubnitz JE, Raimondi SC, Onciu M, Coustan-Smith E, Kun LE, Jeha S, Cheng C, Howard SC, Simmons V, Bayles A, Metzger ML, Boyett JM, Leung W, Handgretinger R, Downing JR, Evans WE, Relling MV
N Engl J Med. 2009;360(26):2730.
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic cranial irradiation has been a standard treatment in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who are at high risk for central nervous system (CNS) relapse.
METHODS: We conducted a clinical trial to test whether prophylactic cranial irradiation could be omitted from treatment in all children with newly diagnosed ALL. A total of 498 patients who could be evaluated were enrolled. Treatment intensity was based on presenting features and the level of minimal residual disease after remission-induction treatment. The duration of continuous complete remission in the 71 patients who previously would have received prophylactic cranial irradiation was compared with that of 56 historical controls who received it.
RESULTS: The 5-year event-free and overall survival probabilities for all 498 patients were 85.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 79.9 to 91.3) and 93.5% (95% CI, 89.8 to 97.2), respectively.The 5-year cumulative risk of isolated CNS relapse was 2.7% (95% CI, 1.1 to 4.3), and that of any CNS relapse (including isolated relapse and combined relapse) was 3.9% (95% CI, 1.9 to 5.9). The 71 patients had significantly longer continuous complete remission than the 56 historical controls (P=0.04). All 11 patients with isolated CNS relapse remained in second remission for 0.4 to 5.5 years. CNS leukemia (CNS-3 status) or a traumatic lumbar puncture with blast cells at diagnosis and a high level of minimal residual disease (>or = 1%) after 6 weeks of remission induction were significantly associated with poorer event-free survival. Risk factors for CNS relapse included the genetic abnormality t(1;19)(TCF3-PBX1), any CNS involvement at diagnosis, and T-cell immunophenotype. Common adverse effects included allergic reactions to asparaginase, osteonecrosis, thrombosis, and disseminated fungal infection.
CONCLUSIONS: With effective risk-adjusted chemotherapy, prophylactic cranial irradiation can be safely omitted from the treatment of childhood ALL. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00137111.)
Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA. email@example.com