Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2017 UpToDate®

Overview of the routine management of the healthy newborn infant

Tiffany M McKee-Garrett, MD
Section Editor
Leonard E Weisman, MD
Deputy Editor
Melanie S Kim, MD


After birth, most newborn infants require only routine care to make a successful transition to extrauterine life.

The major components of routine care for the term (gestational age [GA] ≥38 weeks), early term (GA between 37 to 37 6/7 weeks), and late preterm (GA between 35 to 36 6/7 weeks) neonate are:

Delivery room and transitional care, including early bonding

Newborn assessment including a comprehensive review of the maternal history and a complete physical examination

Prophylaxis care to prevent serious disorders


Subscribers log in here

To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information or to purchase a personal subscription, click below on the option that best describes you:
Literature review current through: Mar 2017. | This topic last updated: Feb 08, 2017.
The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2017 UpToDate, Inc.
  1. Wyckoff MH, Aziz K, Escobedo MB, et al. Part 13: Neonatal Resuscitation: 2015 American Heart Association Guidelines Update for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation 2015; 132:S543.
  2. Feldman-Winter L, Goldsmith JP, COMMITTEE ON FETUS AND NEWBORN, TASK FORCE ON SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME. Safe Sleep and Skin-to-Skin Care in the Neonatal Period for Healthy Term Newborns. Pediatrics 2016; 138.
  3. American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Care of the Newborn. In: Guidelines for Perinatal Care, 7th ed, Riley LE and Stark AR (Ed), American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Obstetricians, Elk Grove Village, IL 2012.
  5. American Academy of Pediatrics. Overview and principles of resuscitation. In: Textbook of Neonatal Resuscitation, 6th ed, Kattwinkel J (Ed), American Academy of Pediatrics, 2011.
  6. Perlman JM, Wyllie J, Kattwinkel J, et al. Part 7: Neonatal Resuscitation: 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Circulation 2015; 132:S204.
  7. Greenwell EA, Wyshak G, Ringer SA, et al. Intrapartum temperature elevation, epidural use, and adverse outcome in term infants. Pediatrics 2012; 129:e447.
  8. American Academy of Pediatrics. Prevention of neonatal ophthalmia. In: Red Book: 2015 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 30th ed, Kimberlin DW, Brady MT, Jackson MA, Long SS (Eds), American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL 2015. p.972.
  9. AAP Committee on Fetus and Newborn, ACOG Committee on Obstetric Practice. Guidelines for Perinatal Care, 7th ed, Riley LE, Stark AR, Kilpatrick SJ, Papile LA (Eds), American Academy of Pediatrics, 2012. p.284.
  10. Workowski KA, Bolan GA, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recomm Rep 2015; 64:1.
  11. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Controversies concerning vitamin K and the newborn. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Pediatrics 2003; 112:191.
  12. Puckett RM, Offringa M. Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; :CD002776.
  13. Wariyar U, Hilton S, Pagan J, et al. Six years' experience of prophylactic oral vitamin K. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2000; 82:F64.
  14. von Kries R, Hachmeister A, Göbel U. Can 3 oral 2 mg doses of vitamin K effectively prevent late vitamin K deficiency bleeding? Eur J Pediatr 1999; 158 Suppl 3:S183.
  15. Zipursky A. Prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding in newborns. Br J Haematol 1999; 104:430.
  16. Cornelissen M, von Kries R, Loughnan P, Schubiger G. Prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding: efficacy of different multiple oral dose schedules of vitamin K. Eur J Pediatr 1997; 156:126.
  17. Witt M, Kvist N, Jørgensen MH. Prophylactic Dosing of Vitamin K to Prevent Bleeding. Pediatrics 2016; 137.
  18. Golding J, Paterson M, Kinlen LJ. Factors associated with childhood cancer in a national cohort study. Br J Cancer 1990; 62:304.
  19. Golding J, Greenwood R, Birmingham K, Mott M. Childhood cancer, intramuscular vitamin K, and pethidine given during labour. BMJ 1992; 305:341.
  20. Passmore SJ, Draper G, Brownbill P, Kroll M. Case-control studies of relation between childhood cancer and neonatal vitamin K administration. BMJ 1998; 316:178.
  21. Klebanoff MA, Read JS, Mills JL, Shiono PH. The risk of childhood cancer after neonatal exposure to vitamin K. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:905.
  22. Carstensen J. Intramuscular vitamin K and childhood cancer. BMJ 1992; 305:709.
  23. Ross JA, Davies SM. Vitamin K prophylaxis and childhood cancer. Med Pediatr Oncol 2000; 34:434.
  24. Notes from the field: Late vitamin K deficiency bleeding in infants whose parents declined Vitamin K prophylaxis — Tennessee, 2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2013; 62:901.
  25. Busfield A, Samuel R, McNinch A, Tripp JH. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding after NICE guidance and withdrawal of Konakion Neonatal: British Paediatric Surveillance Unit study, 2006-2008. Arch Dis Child 2013; 98:41.
  26. Warren M, Miller A, Traylor J, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Notes from the Field: Late Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding in Infants Whose Parents Declined Vitamin K Prophylaxis — Tennessee, 2013. www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6245a4.htm (Accessed on March 30, 2015).
  27. Clarke P, Mitchell SJ, Wynn R, et al. Vitamin K prophylaxis for preterm infants: a randomized, controlled trial of 3 regimens. Pediatrics 2006; 118:e1657.
  28. American College of Medical Genetics Newborn Screening Expert Group. Newborn screening: toward a uniform screening panel and system--executive summary. Pediatrics 2006; 117:S296.
  29. Paul IM, Schaefer EW, Miller JR, et al. Weight Change Nomograms for the First Month After Birth. Pediatrics 2016; 138.
  30. Flaherman VJ, Schaefer EW, Kuzniewicz MW, et al. Early weight loss nomograms for exclusively breastfed newborns. Pediatrics 2015; 135:e16.
  31. Benitz WE, Committee on Fetus and Newborn, American Academy of Pediatrics. Hospital stay for healthy term newborn infants. Pediatrics 2015; 135:948.
  32. Britton JR, Baker A, Spino C, Bernstein HH. Postpartum discharge preferences of pediatricians: results from a national survey. Pediatrics 2002; 110:53.
  33. Bernstein HH, Spino C, Baker A, et al. Postpartum discharge: do varying perceptions of readiness impact health outcomes? Ambul Pediatr 2002; 2:388.
  34. Clark DA. Times of first void and first stool in 500 newborns. Pediatrics 1977; 60:457.
  35. Erenberg A, Lemons J, Sia C, et al. Newborn and infant hearing loss: detection and intervention.American Academy of Pediatrics. Task Force on Newborn and Infant Hearing, 1998- 1999. Pediatrics 1999; 103:527.
  36. Liu Z, Dow WH, Norton EC. Effect of drive-through delivery laws on postpartum length of stay and hospital charges. J Health Econ 2004; 23:129.
  37. Datar A, Sood N. Impact of postpartum hospital-stay legislation on newborn length of stay, readmission, and mortality in California. Pediatrics 2006; 118:63.
  38. Meara E, Kotagal UR, Atherton HD, Lieu TA. Impact of early newborn discharge legislation and early follow-up visits on infant outcomes in a state Medicaid population. Pediatrics 2004; 113:1619.
  39. Shakib J, Buchi K, Smith E, et al. Timing of initial well-child visit and readmissions of newborns. Pediatrics 2015; 135:469.
  40. Paul IM, Lehman EB, Hollenbeak CS, Maisels MJ. Preventable newborn readmissions since passage of the Newborns' and Mothers' Health Protection Act. Pediatrics 2006; 118:2349.