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Overview of the neuropsychiatric aspects of HIV infection and AIDS

Authors
Andrew A Pieper, MD, PhD
Glenn J Treisman, MD, PhD
Section Editor
Jonathan M Silver, MD
Deputy Editor
David Solomon, MD

INTRODUCTION

The high prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders in individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is related to a wide variety of factors including: direct effects of the virus, preexisting psychiatric conditions, personality vulnerabilities, affective disorders, addictions, and personal responses to the social isolation and disenfranchisement associated with the diagnosis of HIV. Furthermore, many HIV-infected persons experience difficulty with treatment adherence due to their behavior patterns as well as acquisition of specific neuropsychiatric disorders associated with HIV disease progression. Studies have shown that patients with neuropsychiatric conditions have poorer outcomes and less benefit from antiretroviral therapy; however, psychiatric treatment improves HIV-related outcomes [1].

Neuropsychiatric care in HIV disease ranges from supportive psychotherapy for grief and loss issues to treatment of specific HIV-associated neuropsychiatric conditions (eg, HIV-associated dementia, minor cognitive-motor disorder, acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS]-mania), as well as management of unique clinical presentations of other psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. The availability of effective psychiatric care to HIV-infected patients is critical for their treatment and also for controlling the HIV epidemic.

Mental disorders that are commonly comorbid with HIV disease include:

Delirium

Minor cognitive-motor disorder (MCMD)

            

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Literature review current through: Nov 2016. | This topic last updated: Tue Dec 08 00:00:00 GMT+00:00 2015.
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