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Overview of the initial approach and management of urothelial bladder cancer

Seth P Lerner, MD
Derek Raghavan, MD, PhD, FACP, FASCO
Section Editor
Jerome P Richie, MD, FACS
Deputy Editor
Michael E Ross, MD


Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy involving the urinary system. Urothelial (formerly called transitional cell) carcinoma is the predominant histologic type in the United States and Europe, where it accounts for approximately 90 percent of all bladder cancers. In other areas of the world, non-urothelial carcinomas are more frequent. Less commonly, urothelial cancers can arise in the renal pelvis, ureter, or urethra. (See "Epidemiology and risk factors of urothelial (transitional cell) carcinoma of the bladder", section on 'Epidemiology'.)

The spectrum of urothelial bladder cancer at presentation includes non-muscle invasive, muscle invasive, and metastatic disease. The extent of disease reflects its natural history and determines treatment and prognosis.

This topic provides an overview of the initial approach to and management of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. More detailed discussions of specific issues are found in associated topics, as indicated below.

The management of urothelial tumors arising at other sites is discussed separately, as are other types of bladder cancer:

(See "Urethral cancer".)

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Literature review current through: Oct 2017. | This topic last updated: Oct 18, 2017.
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