Overview of psychotherapies
- Jay Lebow, PhD, ABPP
Jay Lebow, PhD, ABPP
- Professor of Psychology
- The Family Institute at Northwestern and Northwestern University
- Section Editors
- Andrew Skodol, MD
Andrew Skodol, MD
- Section Editor — Personality Disorders
- Research Professor of Psychiatry
- University of Arizona College of Medicine
- Thomas L Schwenk, MD
Thomas L Schwenk, MD
- Section Editor — Psychiatry
- University of Nevada School of Medicine
Psychotherapy is an interpersonal treatment based on psychological principles. It is individualized to the patient, seeking to help him or her with a psychiatric disorder, problem, or adverse circumstance .
There are many types of psychotherapy with varying methods and levels of empirical support. The choice of the most appropriate type of psychotherapy is in part based upon the patient’s specific problem or diagnosis (table 1).
This topic will provide an overview of psychotherapy to help the clinician providing psychotherapy, or referring a patient to a mental health provider for psychotherapy, explain the rationale for such therapy to a patient. More detailed discussions of psychotherapy for specific disorders are reviewed in detail separately. (See "Unipolar depression in adults: Psychodynamic psychotherapy" and "Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) for depressed adults: Indications, theoretical foundation, general concepts, and efficacy" and "Psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder in adults" and "Psychotherapy for panic disorder in adults" and "Psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in adults" and "Pharmacotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder in adults".)
Although there are many named psychotherapies, most are derivations of a few basic types. Psychotherapies within each of these categories broadly share a similar explanatory model and set of techniques. However, therapies are frequently modified (and may be renamed) when applied to new conditions or populations. Clinical trials have found each of the following psychotherapies, when administered under structured protocols by trained therapists, to be effective for specific psychiatric disorders (table 1) .
●Cognitive and behavioral psychotherapies
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- EVIDENCE-BASED PSYCHOTHERAPIES
- Cognitive and behavioral therapies
- Psychodynamic psychotherapy
- Interpersonal psychotherapy
- Motivational interviewing
- Dialectical behavior therapy
- OTHER PSYCHOTHERAPIES
- Supportive psychotherapy
- Eclectic or integrative psychotherapy
- FORMAT OF PSYCHOTHERAPY
- Individual therapy
- Couple therapy
- Family therapy
- Group therapy
- INDICATIONS FOR PSYCHOTHERAPY
- STAFF AND SETTING
- Psychotherapy in primary care
- - Primary care clinicians with psychotherapy training
- - Integrated primary and specialty care
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS