Medline ® Abstract for Reference 18
of 'Overview of neurologic complications of non-platinum cancer chemotherapy'
Adverse effects of intrathecal methotrexate in children with acute leukemia in remission.
Geiser CF, Bishop Y, Jaffe N, Furman L, Traggis D, Frei E 3rd
A toxic syndrome characterized by fever, headache, and vomiting, lasting 2-5 days, occurred in 61% of 39 children with acute leukemia in complete remission, receiving central nervous system prophylaxis with intrathecal methotrexate, and in 14% of 34 children receiving the same plus cranial radiation. The syndrome was accompanied by pleocytosis with lymphocytes, monocytoid cells, and neutrophils. There was evidence of cumulative Mtx toxicity, since the toxic syndrome occurred mostly after the third and fourth dose and did not recur with longer intervals between doses. The incidence of the syndrome was significantly reduced by the use of Elliott's B solution as Mtx diluent, rather than water or normal saline. The occurrence of pleocytosis and toxic clinical syndrome was also significantly reduced in patients receiving concomitant cranial radiation, probably due to the lympholytic action of radiotherapy and the depressed cellular response of irradiated tissues. The use of Elliott's B solution as diluent for IT Mtx and an appropriate interval between Mtx doses are suggested for prevention of this toxic syndrome.