Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2017 UpToDate, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Medline ® Abstract for Reference 23

of 'Overview of intestinal ischemia in adults'

Release of vasoactive substances during cardiopulmonary bypass.
Downing SW, Edmunds LH Jr
Ann Thorac Surg. 1992;54(6):1236.
Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with bleeding and thrombotic complications, massive fluid shifts, and cellular and hormonal defense reactions that are collectively termed "the whole body inflammatory response." A host of vasoactive substances are produced, released or altered during cardiopulmonary bypass. These hormones, autacoids, and cytokines react with specific receptor proteins distributed throughout the body, and mediate the vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cell contractions that are responsible for much of the morbidity associated with open heart operations. This essay briefly reviews the actions, sources, and perturbations of the approximately 25 vasoactive substances known or believed to be altered by cardiopulmonary bypass, and provides an introductory reference list.
Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia.