Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2015 UpToDate®

Overview of infected (mycotic) arterial aneurysm

Denis Spelman, MBBS, FRACP, FRCPA, MPH
Section Editors
Stephen B Calderwood, MD
John F Eidt, MD
Joseph L Mills, Sr, MD
Deputy Editors
Elinor L Baron, MD, DTMH
Kathryn A Collins, MD, PhD, FACS


An aneurysm is an abnormal focal arterial dilation. Preexisting aneurysms can become secondarily infected, but aneurysmal degeneration of the arterial wall can also be the result of infection that may be due to bacteremia or septic embolization, as in the case of mycotic aneurysm. The name mycotic aneurysm was coined by Osler to describe aneurysms associated with bacterial endocarditis [1]. These were noted to have the appearance of "fresh fungus vegetations"; however, the majority of mycotic aneurysms are caused by bacteria. Although some authors use the term "mycotic" to describe infected aneurysm regardless of etiology, we will limit the use of this term to those aneurysms that develop when material originating in the heart causes arterial wall infection and, subsequently, dilation [2].

Aneurysms are classified into true and false, or pseudoaneurysms. True aneurysms involve all three layers of the arterial wall (intima, media, and adventitia). A false, or pseudo-, aneurysm is a collection of blood or hematoma that has leaked out of the artery but is then confined by the surrounding tissue.

Infected aneurysm is a serious clinical condition that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment consists of antibiotic therapy combined with aggressive surgical debridement of the infected tissue and vascular reconstruction, as needed. Endovascular therapies may have a role in the treatment of ruptured infected aneurysm and the treatment of patients at prohibitive risk for open surgery.

The pathogenesis, microbiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of infected aneurysms will be reviewed. The diagnosis and management of noninfected aneurysms are discussed in separate topic reviews. (See "Iliac artery aneurysm" and "Popliteal artery aneurysm" and "Management of asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm".)


Risk factors for infected aneurysm include:


Subscribers log in here

To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information or to purchase a personal subscription, click below on the option that best describes you:
Literature review current through: Oct 2015. | This topic last updated: Oct 12, 2015.
The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2015 UpToDate, Inc.
  1. Osler W. The Gulstonian Lectures, on Malignant Endocarditis. Br Med J 1885; 1:467.
  2. Bisdas T, Teebken OE. Mycotic or infected aneurysm? Time to change the term. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2011; 41:570; author reply 570.
  3. Qureshi T, Hawrych AB, Hopkins NF. Mycotic aneurysm after percutaneous transluminal femoral artery angioplasty. J R Soc Med 1999; 92:255.
  4. Samore MH, Wessolossky MA, Lewis SM, et al. Frequency, risk factors, and outcome for bacteremia after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Am J Cardiol 1997; 79:873.
  5. Chan YC, Ting AC, Law S, Cheng SW. Secondary infection of a pre-existing thoracic aortic aneurysm by iatrogenic oesophageal perforation with aorta-oesophageal fistula formation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2009; 35:365.
  6. Kunishige H, Myojin K, Ishibashi Y, et al. Perforation of the esophagus by a fish bone leading to an infected pseudoaneurysm of the thoracic aorta. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2008; 56:427.
  7. Gleeton D, Levesque S, Trépanier CA, et al. Symptomatic axillary hematoma after ultrasound-guided infraclavicular block in a patient with undiagnosed upper extremity mycotic aneurysms. Anesth Analg 2010; 111:1069.
  8. Brown SL, Busuttil RW, Baker JD, et al. Bacteriologic and surgical determinants of survival in patients with mycotic aneurysms. J Vasc Surg 1984; 1:541.
  9. Johansen K, Devin J. Mycotic aortic aneurysms. A reappraisal. Arch Surg 1983; 118:583.
  10. Serracino-Inglott F, Snow D, Madan M. A rapidly expanding mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm. J Am Coll Surg 2005; 200:138.
  11. Paraskevas KI, Mikhailidis DP, Giannoukas AD. Periodontitis and abdominal aortic aneurysms: a random association or a pathogenetic link? Int Angiol 2009; 28:431.
  12. Wada K, Kamisaki Y. Roles of oral bacteria in cardiovascular diseases--from molecular mechanisms to clinical cases: Involvement of Porphyromonas gingivalis in the development of human aortic aneurysm. J Pharmacol Sci 2010; 113:115.
  13. Dieter RA. Dental mycotic abdominal aneurysm. J Am Coll Surg 2005; 201:650.
  14. Oderich GS, Panneton JM, Bower TC, et al. Infected aortic aneurysms: aggressive presentation, complicated early outcome, but durable results. J Vasc Surg 2001; 34:900.
  15. Kaneko K, Nonomura Y, Watanabe K, et al. Infected abdominal aortic aneurysm caused by nontyphoid Salmonella in an immunocompromised patient with rheumatoid arthritis. J Infect Chemother 2009; 15:312.
  16. Hajir N, Macaulay E. Occult caecal malignancy leading to mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. ANZ J Surg 2010; 80:950.
  17. Bowden DJ, Hayes PD, Sadat U, Choon See T. Mycotic pseudoaneurysm of the superficial femoral artery in a patient with Cushing disease: case report and literature review. Vascular 2009; 17:163.
  18. Sever M, Verstovsek S, Erasmus J Jr, Mattiuzzi GN. Mycotic pulmonary artery aneurysm due to Aspergillus infection in a patient with leukemia: case report and review of the literature. Leuk Res 2010; 34:e133.
  19. Har-Shai Y, Schein M, Molek AD, et al. Ruptured mycotic aneurysm of the subclavian artery after irradiation. A case report. Eur J Surg 1993; 159:59.
  20. Yoneda K, Shiraki K, Tanaka J, et al. Cervical mycotic aneurysm in a patient with alcoholic cirrhosis. Intern Med 2007; 46:1693.
  21. Mercadal L, Chiche L, Isnard-Bagnis C, et al. Mycotic aneurysm in hemodialysis. Clin Nephrol 2005; 64:493.
  22. Sailors DM, Barone GW, Gagné PJ, et al. Candida arteritis: are GI endoscopic procedures a source of vascular infections? Am Surg 1996; 62:472.
  23. Sharma K, Kibria R, Ali S, Rao P. Primary aortoenteric fistula caused by an infected abdominal aortic aneurysm with Mycobacterium avium complex in an HIV patient. Acta Gastroenterol Belg 2010; 73:280.
  24. Modi G, Ranchod K, Modi M, Mochan A. Human immunodeficiency virus associated intracranial aneurysms: report of three adult patients with an overview of the literature. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2008; 79:44.
  25. Gunst JD, Jensen-Fangel S. A mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm caused by Listeria monocytogenes in a patient with HIV infection. BMJ Case Rep 2014; 2014.
  26. Ortmann C, Wüllenweber J, Brinkmann B, Fracasso T. Fatal mycotic aneurysm caused by Pseudallescheria boydii after near drowning. Int J Legal Med 2010; 124:243.
  27. Macbeth GA, Rubin JR, McIntyre KE Jr, et al. The relevance of arterial wall microbiology to the treatment of prosthetic graft infections: graft infection vs. arterial infection. J Vasc Surg 1984; 1:750.
  28. Sedivy P, Sebesta P, Trejbalová E, Henysová J. Infected false aneurysm caused by hematogenous dissemination of Staphylococcus aureus after the use of vaginal tampons. Int Angiol 2008; 27:439.
  29. Ernst CB, Campbell HC Jr, Daugherty ME, et al. Incidence and significance of intra-operative bacterial cultures during abdominal aortic aneurysmectomy. Ann Surg 1977; 185:626.
  30. Garb M. Appendicitis: an unusual cause of infected abdominal aortic aneurysm. Australas Radiol 1994; 38:68.
  31. Fraser CD 3rd, Arnaoutakis GJ, George TJ, et al. Acute cholecystitis preceding mycotic aortic pseudoaneurysm in a heart transplant recipient. J Card Surg 2010; 25:749.
  32. Mazzalai F, Ragazzi R, Iurilli V, et al. Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected infrarenal abdominal aorta pseudoaneurysm secondary to laparoscopic colorectal surgery: failure of endovascular stent graft treatment after primary open repair failed. Can J Surg 2009; 52:E193.
  33. Nunoo-Mensah JW, Ritter MP, Wasserberg N, et al. Pseudoaneurysm of the inferior gluteal artery: an unusual complication after abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer. Report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum 2007; 50:115.
  34. Maalouf M, Moon W, Leers S, et al. Mycotic aneurysm of the infrarenal aorta after drainage of an infected chronic pancreatic pseudocyst: case report and review of the literature. Am Surg 2007; 73:1266.
  35. Behnke NM, Cui Q, Orndorff D. Late presentation of a mycotic popliteal artery pseudoaneurysm in the setting of a revised total knee arthroplasty complicated by both prior infection and periprosthetic fracture: a case report. Ann Vasc Surg 2007; 21:519.
  36. Smith GH, Nutton RW, Fraser SC. Iliac artery pseudoaneurysm rupture following excision of an infected hip prosthesis. J Arthroplasty 2011; 26:977.e13.
  37. Sawbridge D, O'Connor OJ, MacEneaney P, et al. Successful endovascular treatment of an infected external iliac pseudoaneurysm with hemorrhage at total hip arthroplasty. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2010; 21:1135.
  38. Woo SB, Cheng LC, Wong WC. Mycotic aortic aneurysm following treatment of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2006; 14:e102.
  39. Learch TJ, Sakamoto B, Ling AC, Donovan SM. Salmonella spondylodiscitis associated with a mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm and paravertebral abscess. Emerg Radiol 2009; 16:147.
  40. Chen SH, Lin WC, Lee CH, Chou WY. Spontaneous infective spondylitis and mycotic aneurysm: incidence, risk factors, outcome and management experience. Eur Spine J 2008; 17:439.
  41. Baddour LM, Wilson WR, Bayer AS, et al. Infective Endocarditis in Adults: Diagnosis, Antimicrobial Therapy, and Management of Complications: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association. Circulation 2015; 132:1435.
  42. González I, Sarriá C, López J, et al. Symptomatic peripheral mycotic aneurysms due to infective endocarditis: a contemporary profile. Medicine (Baltimore) 2014; 93:42.
  43. Wu FZ, Lai PH. Evolution and regression of intracranial infectious aneurysm diagnosed by brain computed tomographic angiography. Arch Neurol 2010; 67:1147.
  44. Johansen K, Devin J. Spontaneous healing of mycotic aortic aneurysms. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 1980; 21:625.
  45. Bozkurt AK, Oztunç F, Akman C, et al. Multiple pulmonary artery aneurysms due to infective endocarditis. Ann Thorac Surg 2003; 75:593.
  46. Monteleone PP, Shrestha NK, Jacob J, et al. Clinical utility of cerebral angiography in the preoperative assessment of endocarditis. Vasc Med 2014; 19:500.
  47. Negishi K, Ono Y, Kurosawa K, et al. Infective endocarditis complicated by mycotic aneurysm of a coronary artery with a perforated mitral valvular aneurysm. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2009; 22:542.e1.
  48. Johnson JR, Ledgerwood AM, Lucas CE. Mycotic aneurysm. New concepts in therapy. Arch Surg 1983; 118:577.
  49. Maeda H, Umezawa H, Goshima M, et al. Primary infected abdominal aortic aneurysm: surgical procedures, early mortality rates, and a survey of the prevalence of infectious organisms over a 30-year period. Surg Today 2011; 41:346.
  50. Moneta GL, Taylor LM Jr, Yeager RA, et al. Surgical treatment of infected aortic aneurysm. Am J Surg 1998; 175:396.
  51. Brossier J, Lesprit P, Marzelle J, et al. New bacteriological patterns in primary infected aorto-iliac aneurysms: a single-centre experience. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2010; 40:582.
  52. Marques da Silva R, Caugant DA, Eribe ER, et al. Bacterial diversity in aortic aneurysms determined by 16S ribosomal RNA gene analysis. J Vasc Surg 2006; 44:1055.
  53. Lew WK, Rowe VL, Cunningham MJ, Weaver FA. Endovascular management of mycotic aortic aneurysms and associated aortoaerodigestive fistulas. Ann Vasc Surg 2009; 23:81.
  54. Utsumi T, Ohtsuka M, Uchida E, et al. Abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm caused by prolonged methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sepsis. Int J Cardiol 2008; 128:294.
  55. Karkos CD, Burnett C, Buckely H, et al. Mycotic common iliac artery aneurysm complicating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: an unusual cause of ureteric obstruction. Ann Vasc Surg 2005; 19:904.
  56. Kuo CC, Wu V, Tsai CW, et al. Fatal bacteremic mycotic aneurysm complicated by acute renal failure caused by daptomycin-nonsusceptible, vancomycin-intermediate, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 47:859.
  57. Hsu RB, Tsay YG, Wang SS, Chu SH. Surgical treatment for primary infected aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta, and iliac arteries. J Vasc Surg 2002; 36:746.
  58. Brouwer RE, van Bockel JH, van Dissel JT. Streptococcus pneumoniae, an emerging pathogen in mycotic aneurysms? Neth J Med 1998; 52:16.
  59. Cartery C, Astudillo L, Deelchand A, et al. Abdominal infectious aortitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae: a case report and literature review. Ann Vasc Surg 2011; 25:266.e9.
  60. Dick J, Tiwari A, Menon J, Hamilton G. Abdominal aortic aneurysm secondary to infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a rare cause of mycotic aneurysm. Ann Vasc Surg 2010; 24:692.e1.
  61. McCann JF, Fareed A, Reddy S, et al. Multi-resistant Escherichia coli and mycotic aneurysm: two case reports. J Med Case Rep 2009; 3:6453.
  62. Jarrett F, Darling RC, Mundth ED, Austen WG. Experience with infected aneurysms of the abdominal aorta. Arch Surg 1975; 110:1281.
  63. Cruz RP, Marrone LC, Marrone AC. Chronic syphilitic aortic aneurysm complicated with chronic aortic dissection. Am J Surg 2010; 200:e64.
  64. Costiniuk CT, Sharapov AA, Rose GW, et al. Mycobacterium bovis abdominal aortic and femoral artery aneurysms following intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy for bladder cancer. Cardiovasc Pathol 2010; 19:e29.
  65. Canaud L, Marzelle J, Bassinet L, et al. Tuberculous aneurysms of the abdominal aorta. J Vasc Surg 2008; 48:1012.
  66. Harding GE, Lawlor DK. Ruptured mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm secondary to Mycobacterium bovis after intravesical treatment with bacillus Calmette-Guérin. J Vasc Surg 2007; 46:131.
  67. Long R, Guzman R, Greenberg H, et al. Tuberculous mycotic aneurysm of the aorta: review of published medical and surgical experience. Chest 1999; 115:522.
  68. Sessa C, Vokrri L, Porcu P, et al. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and Coxiella burnetii infection: report of three cases and review of the literature. J Vasc Surg 2005; 42:153.
  69. Barten DG, Delsing CE, Keijmel SP, et al. Localizing chronic Q fever: a challenging query. BMC Infect Dis 2013; 13:413.
  70. Brunner S, Engelmann MG, Näbauer M. Thoracic mycotic pseudoaneurysm from Candida albicans infection. Eur Heart J 2008; 29:1515.
  71. Deitch JS, Plonk GW, Hagenstad C, et al. Cryptococcal aortitis presenting as a ruptured mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm. J Vasc Surg 1999; 30:189.
  72. Mettananda KC, De Silva ST, Premawardhena AP. Mycotic aneurysm of the descending aorta due to Aspergillus species. Ceylon Med J 2010; 55:20.
  73. Blasco-Lucas A, Reyes-Juárez JL, Nazarena Pizzi M, et al. Aortic Arch Mycotic Aneurysm Due to Scedosporium Apiospermum Reconstructed With Homografts. Ann Thorac Surg 2015; 99:2218.
  74. Chandrikakumari K, Giot JB, de Leval L, et al. Report of a case of Streptococcus agalactiae mycotic aneurysm and review of the literature. Int J Surg Pathol 2008; 16:314.
  75. Seder CW, Kramer M, Long G, et al. Clostridium septicum aortitis: Report of two cases and review of the literature. J Vasc Surg 2009; 49:1304.
  76. Prech M, Grajek S, Cieśliński A, Jemielity M. Mycotic aneurysm of the ascending aorta following CABG. Heart 2000; 83:E3.
  77. Boudewijns M, Magerman K, Verhaegen J, et al. Rothia dentocariosa, endocarditis and mycotic aneurysms: case report and review of the literature. Clin Microbiol Infect 2003; 9:222.
  78. Papavassiliou VG, Xanthopoulos DK, Argitis VP, et al. Infected ruptured popliteal artery aneurysm by Listeria monocytogenes. A case report and review of the literatures. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2008; 49:245.
  79. Bal A, Schönleben F, Agaimy A, et al. Listeria monocytogenes as a rare cause of mycotic aortic aneurysm. J Vasc Surg 2010; 52:456.
  80. Resch M, Schichtl T, Endemann DH, et al. General aneurysmatosis due to cheese consumption: complications of an endocarditis caused by Lactococcus cremoris. Int J Cardiol 2008; 126:e8.
  81. Hsu RB, Lin FY. Psoas abscess in patients with an infected aortic aneurysm. J Vasc Surg 2007; 46:230.
  82. Montero A, Corbella X, López JA, et al. Campylobacter fetus-associated aneurysms: report of a case involving the popliteal artery and review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis 1997; 24:1019.
  83. Onoda M, Furutani A, Akiyama N, et al. Infected aneurysms of bilateral deep femoral arteries due to Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus. Ann Vasc Surg 2008; 22:476.
  84. La Scola B, Musso D, Carta A, et al. Aortoabdominal aneurysm infected by Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9. J Infect 1997; 35:314.
  85. Hadou T, Elfarra M, Alauzet C, et al. Abdominal aortic aneurysm infected by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol 2006; 44:3457.
  86. Cakalagaoglu C, Keser N, Alhan C. Brucella-mediated prosthetic valve endocarditis with brachial artery mycotic aneurysm. J Heart Valve Dis 1999; 8:586.
  87. Park SJ, Kim MN, Kwon TW. Infected abdominal aortic aneurysm caused by Brucella abortus: a case report. J Vasc Surg 2007; 46:1277.
  88. Takahashi Y, Tsutsumi Y, Monta O, et al. Mycotic aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta caused by Haemophilus influenzae. J Card Surg 2010; 25:218.
  89. Antonopoulos C, Karagianni M, Galanakis N, Vagianos C. Mycotic splenic artery aneurysm secondary to Coxiella burnetii endocarditis. Ann Vasc Surg 2010; 24:416.e13.
  90. Botelho-Nevers E, Fournier PE, Richet H, et al. Coxiella burnetii infection of aortic aneurysms or vascular grafts: report of 30 new cases and evaluation of outcome. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2007; 26:635.
  91. Bendermacher BL, Peppelenbosch AG, Daemen JW, et al. Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) causing an infected thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm. J Vasc Surg 2011; 53:1402.
  92. Pencavel TD, Singh-Ranger G, Crinnion JN. Conservative treatment of an early aortic graft infection due to Acinetobacter baumanii. Ann Vasc Surg 2006; 20:415.
  93. Low JG, Quek AM, Sin YK, Ang BS. Mycotic aneurysm due to Burkholderia pseudomallei infection: case reports and literature review. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 40:193.
  94. Lee SY, Sin YK, Kurup A, et al. Stent-graft for recurrent melioidosis mycotic aortic aneurysm. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2006; 14:e38.
  95. Rao J, Kaushal AS, Hoong CK. Abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm secondary to melioidosis. Asian J Surg 2009; 32:64.
  96. Anunnatsiri S, Chetchotisakd P, Kularbkaew C. Mycotic aneurysm in Northeast Thailand: the importance of Burkholderia pseudomallei as a causative pathogen. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 47:1436.
  97. Melendez BA, Hollis HW Jr, Rehring TF. Mycotic popliteal aneurysm rupture secondary to Campylobacter fetus. Ann Vasc Surg 2015; 29:122.e9.
  98. Hagiya H, Matsumoto M, Furukawa H, et al. Mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm caused by Campylobacter fetus: a case report and literature review. Ann Vasc Surg 2014; 28:1933.e7.
  99. Lee HL, Liu KH, Yang YJ, Kan CD. Bacteroides fragilis aortic arch pseudoaneurysm: case report with review. J Cardiothorac Surg 2008; 3:29.
  100. Pennell RC, Hollier LH, Lie JT, et al. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms: a thirty-year review. J Vasc Surg 1985; 2:859.
  101. Skourtis G, Papacharalambous G, Makris S, et al. Primary aortoenteric fistula due to septic aortitis. Ann Vasc Surg 2010; 24:825.e7.
  102. Zhao J. Massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to a ruptured superior mesenteric artery aneurysm duodenum fistula. J Vasc Surg 2008; 48:735.
  103. Keripe S, Slavik S, Oshodi T. Primary aortoappendicular fistula arising from an infected, chronic, contained, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. Ann Vasc Surg 2006; 20:820.
  104. Millar A, Rostom A, Rasuli P, Saloojee N. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to an aberrant right subclavian artery-esophageal fistula: a case report and review of the literature. Can J Gastroenterol 2007; 21:389.
  105. Shiraishi M, Ohki S, Misawa Y. Mycotic superior mesenteric pseudoaneurysm draining into a vein. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2011; 12:91.
  106. Masumoto H, Shimamoto M, Yamazaki F, et al. Airway stenosis associated with a mycotic pseudoaneurysm of the common carotid artery. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2008; 56:242.
  107. Dransfield MT, Johnson JE. A mycotic pulmonary artery aneurysm presenting as an endobronchial mass. Chest 2003; 124:1610.
  108. Greillier L, Barlesi F, Fraticelli A, et al. Fatal pulmonary haemorrhage from a mycotic pulmonary artery aneurysm. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2005; 9:702.
  109. Yamamoto H, Yamamoto F, Izumoto H, et al. Repetitive contained rupture of an infected abdominal aortic aneurysm with concomitant vertebral erosion. Ann Vasc Surg 2010; 24:824.e1.
  110. Veilleux M, Bourgouin P, Morin JF. Brachial plexopathy secondary to mycotic subclavian-axillary artery aneurysm. Muscle Nerve 1996; 19:92.
  111. Reddy DJ, Shepard AD, Evans JR, et al. Management of infected aortoiliac aneurysms. Arch Surg 1991; 126:873.
  112. Soravia-Dunand VA, Loo VG, Salit IE. Aortitis due to Salmonella: report of 10 cases and comprehensive review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis 1999; 29:862.
  113. Hsu RB, Lin FY. Surgical pathology of infected aortic aneurysm and its clinical correlation. Ann Vasc Surg 2007; 21:742.
  114. Vogelzang RL, Sohaey R. Infected aortic aneurysms: CT appearance. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1988; 12:109.
  115. Walsh DW, Ho VB, Haggerty MF. Mycotic aneurysm of the aorta: MRI and MRA features. J Magn Reson Imaging 1997; 7:312.
  116. Ou P, Sidi D, Bonnet D, Brunelle F. Infected pulmonary artery aneurysms: CT imaging findings. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2006; 29:248.
  117. Gomes MN, Choyke PL. Infected aortic aneurysms: CT diagnosis. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 1992; 33:684.
  118. Lee MH, Chan P, Chiou HJ, Cheung WK. Diagnostic imaging of Salmonella-related mycotic aneurysm of aorta by CT. Clin Imaging 1996; 20:26.
  119. Rozenblit A, Bennett J, Suggs W. Evolution of the infected abdominal aortic aneurysm: CT observation of early aortitis. Abdom Imaging 1996; 21:512.
  120. Lee WK, Mossop PJ, Little AF, et al. Infected (mycotic) aneurysms: spectrum of imaging appearances and management. Radiographics 2008; 28:1853.
  121. Chen CL, Chou AS, Chiu CH. Clinical challenges and images in GI. Mycotic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery. Gastroenterology 2006; 131:13, 337.
  122. Serafino G, Vroegindeweij D, Boks S, van der Harst E. Mycotic aneurysm of the celiac trunk: from early CT sign to rupture. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2005; 28:677.
  123. Spacek M, Stadler P, Bĕlohlávek O, Sebesta P. Contribution to FDG-PET/CT diagnostics and post-operative monitoring of patients with mycotic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta. Acta Chir Belg 2010; 110:106.
  124. Davison JM, Montilla-Soler JL, Broussard E, et al. F-18 FDG PET-CT imaging of a mycotic aneurysm. Clin Nucl Med 2005; 30:483.
  125. Hsu CC, Huang YF, Chuang YW. Detection of an infected abdominal aortic aneurysm with three-phase bone scan and gallium-67 scan. Clin Nucl Med 2008; 33:305.
  126. Choi SJ, Lee JS, Cheong MH, et al. F-18 FDG PET/CT in the management of infected abdominal aortic aneurysm due to Salmonella. Clin Nucl Med 2008; 33:492.
  127. Fukuchi K, Ishida Y, Higashi M, et al. Detection of aortic graft infection by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography: comparison with computed tomographic findings. J Vasc Surg 2005; 42:919.
  128. Bonekamp D, Smith JD, Aygun N. Avid FDG uptake in a rapidly enlarging common carotid artery mycotic aneurysm, mimicking lymphadenopathy. Emerg Radiol 2009; 16:383.
  129. Van der Wall H, Palmer A, Thomas M, Chu J. Bone and leukocyte scintigraphy of a complicated case of ruptured mycotic aneurysm of the aorta. A case history. Angiology 1994; 45:315.
  130. Murakami M, Morikage N, Samura M, et al. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography for diagnosis of infected aortic aneurysms. Ann Vasc Surg 2014; 28:575.
  131. Ugurlucan M, Umaroglu S, Tireli E, Alpagut U. Endovascular treatment of mycotic saccular aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2011; 12:63.
  132. Kan CD, Lee HL, Yang YJ. Outcome after endovascular stent graft treatment for mycotic aortic aneurysm: a systematic review. J Vasc Surg 2007; 46:906.
  133. Bell RE, Taylor PR, Aukett M, et al. Successful endoluminal repair of an infected thoracic pseudoaneurysm caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Endovasc Ther 2003; 10:29.
  134. Kan CD, Lee HL, Luo CY, Yang YJ. The efficacy of aortic stent grafts in the management of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm-institute case management with systemic literature comparison. Ann Vasc Surg 2010; 24:433.
  135. Kinney EV, Kaebnick HW, Mitchell RA, Jung MT. Repair of mycotic paravisceral aneurysm with a fenestrated stent-graft. J Endovasc Ther 2000; 7:192.
  136. Kotzampassakis N, Delanaye P, Masy F, Creemers E. Endovascular stent-graft for thoracic aorta aneurysm caused by Salmonella. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2004; 26:225.
  137. Forbes TL, Harding GE. Endovascular repair of Salmonella-infected abdominal aortic aneurysms: a word of caution. J Vasc Surg 2006; 44:198.
  138. Iida Y, Obitsu Y, Yokoi Y, et al. Successful treatment of multiple mycotic aortic aneurysms, using a hybrid procedure. J Vasc Surg 2010; 51:1521.
  139. Sörelius K, Mani K, Björck M, et al. Endovascular repair of mycotic aortic aneurysms. J Vasc Surg 2009; 50:269.
  140. Labrousse L, Montaudon M, Le Guyader A, et al. Endovascular treatment of a tuberculous infected aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta: a word of caution. J Vasc Surg 2007; 46:786.
  141. Ting AC, Cheng SW, Ho P, Poon JT. Endovascular stent graft repair for infected thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysms--a durable option? J Vasc Surg 2006; 44:701.
  142. Cinà CS, Arena GO, Fiture AO, et al. Ruptured mycotic thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms: a report of three cases and a systematic review. J Vasc Surg 2001; 33:861.
  143. Chan FY, Crawford ES, Coselli JS, et al. In situ prosthetic graft replacement for mycotic aneurysm of the aorta. Ann Thorac Surg 1989; 47:193.
  144. Hsu RB, Chang CI, Wu IH, Lin FY. Selective medical treatment of infected aneurysms of the aorta in high risk patients. J Vasc Surg 2009; 49:66.
  145. Taylor CF, Lennox AF. Treatment options for primary infected aorta. Ann Vasc Surg 2007; 21:225.
  146. Ewart JM, Burke ML, Bunt TJ. Spontaneous abdominal aortic infections. Essentials of diagnosis and management. Am Surg 1983; 49:37.
  147. Pasic M, von Segesser L, Turina M. Implantation of antibiotic-releasing carriers and in situ reconstruction for treatment of mycotic aneurysm. Arch Surg 1992; 127:745.
  148. Koskas F, Plissonnier D, Bahnini A, et al. In situ arterial allografting for aortoiliac graft infection: a 6-year experience. Cardiovasc Surg 1996; 4:495.
  149. Pasic M. Mycotic aneurysm of the aorta: evolving surgical concept. Ann Thorac Surg 1996; 61:1053.
  150. Pasic M, Carrel T, von Segesser L, Turina M. In situ repair of mycotic aneurysm of the ascending aorta. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1993; 105:321.
  151. von Segesser LK, Vogt P, Genoni M, et al. The infected aorta. J Card Surg 1997; 12:256.
  152. Lee CH, Hsieh HC, Ko PJ, et al. In situ versus extra-anatomic reconstruction for primary infected infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. J Vasc Surg 2011; 54:64.
  153. Bandyk DF, Novotney ML, Johnson BL, et al. Use of rifampin-soaked gelatin-sealed polyester grafts for in situ treatment of primary aortic and vascular prosthetic infections. J Surg Res 2001; 95:44.
  154. Schneider JR, Oskin SI, Verta MJ Jr. Superficial femoral vein graft interposition in situ repair for femoral mycotic aneurysm. Ann Vasc Surg 2009; 23:147.
  155. Benjamin ME, Cohn EJ Jr, Purtill WA, et al. Arterial reconstruction with deep leg veins for the treatment of mycotic aneurysms. J Vasc Surg 1999; 30:1004.
  156. Vogt PR, Brunner-LaRocca HP, Lachat M, et al. Technical details with the use of cryopreserved arterial allografts for aortic infection: influence on early and midterm mortality. J Vasc Surg 2002; 35:80.
  157. Noel AA, Gloviczki P, Cherry KJ Jr, et al. Abdominal aortic reconstruction in infected fields: early results of the United States cryopreserved aortic allograft registry. J Vasc Surg 2002; 35:847.
  158. Kerzmann A, Ausselet N, Daenen G, Linder JL. Infected abdominal aortic aneurysm treated by in situ replacement with cryopreserved arterial homograft. Acta Chir Belg 2006; 106:447.
  159. Bisdas T, Bredt M, Pichlmaier M, et al. Eight-year experience with cryopreserved arterial homografts for the in situ reconstruction of abdominal aortic infections. J Vasc Surg 2010; 52:323.
  160. Brown KE, Heyer K, Rodriguez H, et al. Arterial reconstruction with cryopreserved human allografts in the setting of infection: A single-center experience with midterm follow-up. J Vasc Surg 2009; 49:660.
  161. McCready RA, Bryant MA, Divelbiss JL, et al. Arterial infections in the new millenium: an old problem revisited. Ann Vasc Surg 2006; 20:590.
  162. Landry GJ, Carlson JR, Liem TK, et al. The sartorius muscle flap: an important adjunct for complicated femoral wounds involving vascular grafts. Am J Surg 2009; 197:655.
  163. Inoue H, Iguro Y, Yamamoto H, et al. Palliative stent-graft insertion followed by an allograft replacement for an infected and ruptured aortic aneurysm. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2009; 15:261.
  164. Mofidi R, Bhat R, Nagy J, et al. Endovascular repair of a ruptured mycotic aneurysm of the common iliac artery. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2007; 30:1029.
  165. Klonaris C, Katsargyris A, Matthaiou A, et al. Emergency stenting of a ruptured infected anastomotic femoral pseudoaneurysm. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2007; 30:1238.
  166. Trellopoulos G, Georgiadis GS, Kapoulas KC, et al. Emergency endovascular treatment of early spontaneous nonaneurysmal popliteal artery rupture in a patient with Salmonella bacteremia. J Vasc Surg 2010; 52:751.
  167. Klonaris C, Katsargyris A, Vasileiou I, et al. Hybrid repair of ruptured infected anastomotic femoral pseudoaneurysms: Emergent stent-graft implantation and secondary surgical debridement. J Vasc Surg 2009; 49:938.
  168. Araki T, Ogane K. Images in cardiovascular medicine. Rupture of infected splenic artery aneurysm secondary to infective endocarditis. Circulation 2008; 118:684.
  169. Dogan S, Memis A, Kale A, Buket S. Endovascular stent graft placement in the treatment of ruptured tuberculous pseudoaneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta: case report and review of the literature. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2009; 32:572.
  170. Kische S, Ince H, Peuster M. Coil occlusion of a subclavian mycotic aneurysm. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2010; 75:1116.
  171. Bush RL, Hurt JE, Bianco CC. Endovascular management of a ruptured mycotic aneurysm of the innominate artery. Ann Thorac Surg 2002; 74:2184.
  172. Patel HJ, Williams DM, Upchurch GR Jr, et al. Late outcomes of endovascular aortic repair for the infected thoracic aorta. Ann Thorac Surg 2009; 87:1366.
  173. Stanley BM, Semmens JB, Lawrence-Brown MM, et al. Endoluminal repair of mycotic thoracic aneurysms. J Endovasc Ther 2003; 10:511.
  174. Patel HJ, Williams DM, Upchurch GR Jr, et al. Thoracic aortic endovascular repair for mycotic aneurysms and fistulas. J Vasc Surg 2010; 52:37S.
  175. Kpodonu J, Williams JP, Ramaiah VG, Diethrich EB. Endovascular management of a descending thoracic mycotic aneurysm: mid-term follow-up. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2007; 32:178.
  176. Ugurlucan M, Alpagut U. Endoluminal stenting of thoracic aorta mycotic aneurysms. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2007; 32:945.
  177. Razavi MK, Razavi MD. Stent-graft treatment of mycotic aneurysms: a review of the current literature. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2008; 19:S51.
  178. González-Fajardo JA, Gutiérrez V, Martín-Pedrosa M, et al. Endovascular repair in the presence of aortic infection. Ann Vasc Surg 2005; 19:94.
  179. Clough RE, Black SA, Lyons OT, et al. Is endovascular repair of mycotic aortic aneurysms a durable treatment option? Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2009; 37:407.
  180. Jones HR Jr, Siekert RG. Neurological manifestations of infective endocarditis. Review of clinical and therapeutic challenges. Brain 1989; 112 ( Pt 5):1295.
  181. Peters PJ, Harrison T, Lennox JL. A dangerous dilemma: management of infectious intracranial aneurysms complicating endocarditis. Lancet Infect Dis 2006; 6:742.
  182. Ducruet AF, Hickman ZL, Zacharia BE, et al. Intracranial infectious aneurysms: a comprehensive review. Neurosurg Rev 2010; 33:37.
  183. Frizzell RT, Vitek JJ, Hill DL, Fisher WS 3rd. Treatment of a bacterial (mycotic) intracranial aneurysm using an endovascular approach. Neurosurgery 1993; 32:852.
  184. Yen PS, Teo BT, Chen SC, Chiu TL. Endovascular treatment for bilateral mycotic intracavernous carotid aneurysms. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg 2007; 107:868.
  185. Dhomne S, Rao C, Shrivastava M, et al. Endovascular management of ruptured cerebral mycotic aneurysms. Br J Neurosurg 2008; 22:46.
  186. Lopes RJ, Almeida J, Dias PJ, et al. Infectious thoracic aortitis: a literature review. Clin Cardiol 2009; 32:488.
  187. Ando Y, Kurisu K, Hisahara M, et al. Multiple infected aortic aneurysms repaired by staged in situ graft replacement. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010; 16:60.
  188. Nakashima M, Usui A, Oshima H, Ueda Y. The treatment of infectious aneurysms in the thoracic aorta; our experience in treating five consecutive patients. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2010; 10:334.
  189. Hsu RB, Lin FY. Infected aneurysm of the thoracic aorta. J Vasc Surg 2008; 47:270.
  190. Hsu RB, Lin FY. Surgery for infected aneurysm of the aortic arch. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2007; 134:1157.
  191. Nishimura Y, Okamura Y, Hiramatsu T, et al. Successful in situ treatment of infected aortic arch prosthesis by omental wrapping. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2006; 14:e93.
  192. Sakaki M, Takano H, Miyamoto Y, et al. Graft replacement and muscle wrap for infected aneurysm of thoracic aorta. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2006; 14:247.
  193. Weis-Müller BT, Rascanu C, Sagban A, et al. Single-center experience with open surgical treatment of 36 infected aneurysms of the thoracic, thoracoabdominal, and abdominal aorta. Ann Vasc Surg 2011; 25:1020.
  194. León LR, Mills JL. Diagnosis and management of mycotic aneurysms. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2009; 11:274.
  195. Leon LR Jr, Mills JL Sr. Diagnosis and management of aortic mycotic aneurysms. Vasc Endovascular Surg 2010; 44:5.
  196. Dubois M, Daenens K, Houthoofd S, et al. Treatment of mycotic aneurysms with involvement of the abdominal aorta: single-centre experience in 44 consecutive cases. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2010; 40:450.
  197. Woon CY, Sebastian MG, Tay KH, Tan SG. Extra-anatomic revascularization and aortic exclusion for mycotic aneurysms of the infrarenal aorta and iliac arteries in an Asian population. Am J Surg 2008; 195:66.
  198. Ali AT, Modrall JG, Hocking J, et al. Long-term results of the treatment of aortic graft infection by in situ replacement with femoral popliteal vein grafts. J Vasc Surg 2009; 50:30.
  199. Hagendoorn J, de Vries JP, Moll FL. Primary infected, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms: what we learned in 10 years. Vasc Endovascular Surg 2010; 44:294.
  200. Atnip RG. Mycotic aneurysms of the suprarenal abdominal aorta: prolonged survival after in situ aortic and visceral reconstruction. J Vasc Surg 1989; 10:635.
  201. van Dam van Isselt EF, Moll FL, Bast TJ. Cryptogenic Salmonella-infected ruptured aortic aneurysms. Cardiovasc Surg 1998; 6:347.
  202. Khalil I, Nawfal G. Mycotic aneurysms of the carotid artery: ligation vs. reconstruction--case report and review of the literature. Eur J Vasc Surg 1993; 7:588.
  203. Zhang Q, Duan ZQ, Xin SJ, et al. Management of extracranial carotid artery aneurysms: 17 years' experience. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 1999; 18:162.
  204. O'Connell JB, Darcy S, Reil T. Extracranial internal carotid artery mycotic aneurysm: case report and review. Vasc Endovascular Surg 2009; 43:410.
  205. Abularrage CJ, Crawford RS, Durand ML, LaMuraglia GM. Extracranial infected carotid artery aneurysm. J Vasc Surg 2009; 50:1484.
  206. Wales L, Kruger AJ, Jenkins JS, et al. Mycotic carotid pseudoaneurysm: staged endovascular and surgical repair. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2010; 39:23.
  207. Albayrak R, Saglam H, Emmiler M, et al. Large mycotic aneurysm of the peroneal artery. J Clin Ultrasound 2007; 35:344.
  208. Hu ZJ, Wang SM, Li XX, et al. Tolerable hemodynamic changes after femoral artery ligation for the treatment of infected femoral artery pseudoaneurysm. Ann Vasc Surg 2010; 24:212.
  209. Mousavi SR, Saberi A, Tadayon N, et al. Femoral artery ligation as treatment for infected pseudo-aneurysms, secondary to drug injection. Acta Chir Belg 2010; 110:200.
  210. Ehsan O, Gibbons CP. A 10-year experience of using femoro-popliteal vein for re-vascularisation in graft and arterial infections. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2009; 38:172.
  211. Scavee V, Vranckx P, Pauls C, et al. Femoral bifurcation infected pseudoaneurysm: a simple and quick arterial reconstruction with reversed bifurcated saphenous vein graft. Int Angiol 2009; 28:161.
  212. Chan YC, Burnand KG. Management of septic groin complications and infected femoral false aneurysms in intravenous drug abusers. Br J Surg 2006; 93:781.
  213. Salimi J, Shojaeefar A, Khashayar P. Management of infected femoral pseudoaneurysms in intravenous drug abusers: a review of 57 cases. Arch Med Res 2008; 39:120.
  214. Coughlin PA, Mavor AI. Arterial consequences of recreational drug use. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2006; 32:389.
  215. Tan KK, Chen K, Chia KH, et al. Surgical management of infected pseudoaneurysms in intravenous drug abusers: single institution experience and a proposed algorithm. World J Surg 2009; 33:1830.
  216. Salimi J. On the management of mycotic femoral pseudoaneurysms in intravenous drug abusers. Ann Vasc Surg 2009; 23:824.
  217. Peirce C, Coffey JC, O'Grady H, et al. The management of mycotic femoral pseudoaneurysms in intravenous drug abusers. Ann Vasc Surg 2009; 23:345.
  218. Yegane RA, Salehi NA, Ghaseminegad A, et al. Surgical approach to vascular complications of intravenous drug abuse. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2006; 32:397.
  219. Klonaris C, Katsargyris A, Papapetrou A, et al. Infected femoral artery pseudoaneurysm in drug addicts: the beneficial use of the internal iliac artery for arterial reconstruction. J Vasc Surg 2007; 45:498.
  220. Schimmer W, Somjen GM. Endovascular repair of a ruptured, mycotic popliteal aneurysm. ANZ J Surg 2009; 79:560.
  221. Funk LM, Robinson WP, Menard MT. Surgical treatment of an infected popliteal artery aneurysm 12 years after aneurysm exclusion and bypass. Ann Vasc Surg 2010; 24:553.e9.
  222. Lai KM, Rosenthal D, Wellons ED, et al. Mycotic superior mesenteric aneurysm. J Vasc Surg 2007; 45:191.
  223. McCready RA, Bryant MA, Fehrenbacher JW, Rowe MG. Infected splenic artery aneurysm with associated splenic abscess formation secondary to bacterial endocarditis: case report and review of the literature. J Vasc Surg 2007; 45:1066.
  224. Díaz E, Lozano FS, González S, et al. Open and endovascular treatment for pseudoaneurysms of the superior mesenteric artery. Ann Vasc Surg 2010; 24:690.e9.
  225. Leon LR, Psalms SB, Labropoulos N, Mills JL. Infected upper extremity aneurysms: a review. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2008; 35:320.