Overview of epithelial carcinoma of the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum
- Lee-may Chen, MD
Lee-may Chen, MD
- Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology, & Reproductive Sciences
- Division of Gynecologic Oncology
- UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center
- Jonathan S Berek, MD, MMS
Jonathan S Berek, MD, MMS
- Laurie Kraus Lacob Professor
- Director, Stanford Women's Cancer Center
- Stanford Cancer Institute
- Chair, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology
- Stanford University School of Medicine
- Section Editor
- Barbara Goff, MD
Barbara Goff, MD
- Section Editor — Gynecologic Oncology
- Professor of Gynecologic Oncology
- University of Washington
Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynecologic malignancy and the most common cause of gynecologic cancer death in the United States. The majority of ovarian malignancies (95 percent) are epithelial; the remainder arise from other ovarian cell types (germ cell tumors, sex cord-stromal tumors) (figure 1) .
Serous carcinoma, the most common histologic subtype of epithelial ovarian carcinoma, is regarded as closely related to fallopian tube and peritoneal serous carcinoma, based upon similarities in histology and clinical behavior. Some experts have proposed that these carcinomas all originate in the fallopian tubes. Based upon their common features, these carcinomas will be discussed as one clinical entity in this topic review. Distinctions between these conditions will also be addressed. (See "Pathogenesis of ovarian, fallopian tubal, and peritoneal serous carcinomas".)
An overview of epithelial carcinoma of the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum is presented here. Related topics are discussed in detail separately, including:
●Pathogenesis (See "Pathogenesis of ovarian, fallopian tubal, and peritoneal serous carcinomas".)
●Histopathology (See "Epithelial carcinoma of the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum: Histopathology".)
- Lacey JV, Sherman ME. Ovarian neoplasia. In: Robboy's Pathology of the Female Reproductive Tract, 2nd ed., Robboy SL, Mutter GL, Prat J, et al.. (Eds), Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, Oxford 2009. p.601.
- Ben-Baruch G, Sivan E, Moran O, et al. Primary peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma: a study of 25 cases and comparison with stage III-IV ovarian papillary serous carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 1996; 60:393.
- Berek JS, Crum C, Friedlander M. Cancer of the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2012; 119 Suppl 2:S118.
- Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, et al. Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 2011; 61:69.
- Siegel R, Ma J, Zou Z, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2014. CA Cancer J Clin 2014; 64:9.
- http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/ovary.html (Accessed on April 24, 2012).
- Stewart SL, Wike JM, Foster SL, Michaud F. The incidence of primary fallopian tube cancer in the United States. Gynecol Oncol 2007; 107:392.
- Goodman MT, Shvetsov YB. Rapidly increasing incidence of papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum in the United States: fact or artifact? Int J Cancer 2009; 124:2231.
- Pennington KP, Swisher EM. Hereditary ovarian cancer: beyond the usual suspects. Gynecol Oncol 2012; 124:347.
- Boyd J. Specific keynote: hereditary ovarian cancer: what we know. Gynecol Oncol 2003; 88:S8.
- Li AJ, Karlan BY. Genetic factors in ovarian carcinoma. Curr Oncol Rep 2001; 3:27.
- Risch HA, McLaughlin JR, Cole DE, et al. Prevalence and penetrance of germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in a population series of 649 women with ovarian cancer. Am J Hum Genet 2001; 68:700.
- Pal T, Permuth-Wey J, Betts JA, et al. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations account for a large proportion of ovarian carcinoma cases. Cancer 2005; 104:2807.
- Heintz AP, Odicino F, Maisonneuve P, et al. Carcinoma of the ovary. FIGO 26th Annual Report on the Results of Treatment in Gynecological Cancer. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2006; 95 Suppl 1:S161.
- Winter WE 3rd, Maxwell GL, Tian C, et al. Prognostic factors for stage III epithelial ovarian cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol 2007; 25:3621.
- Hoskins WJ, Bundy BN, Thigpen JT, Omura GA. The influence of cytoreductive surgery on recurrence-free interval and survival in small-volume stage III epithelial ovarian cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 1992; 47:159.
- Crawford SC, Vasey PA, Paul J, et al. Does aggressive surgery only benefit patients with less advanced ovarian cancer? Results from an international comparison within the SCOTROC-1 Trial. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23:8802.
- Berman ML. Future directions in the surgical management of ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2003; 90:S33.
- Aletti GD, Gostout BS, Podratz KC, Cliby WA. Ovarian cancer surgical resectability: relative impact of disease, patient status, and surgeon. Gynecol Oncol 2006; 100:33.
- Solomon LA, Munkarah AR, Schimp VL, et al. Maspin expression and localization impact on angiogenesis and prognosis in ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2006; 101:385.
- Zivanovic O, Sima CS, Iasonos A, et al. Exploratory analysis of serum CA-125 response to surgery and the risk of relapse in patients with FIGO stage IIIC ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2009; 115:209.
- Zhao D, Zhang F, Zhang W, et al. Prognostic role of hormone receptors in ovarian cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2013; 23:25.
- Cliby WA, Aletti GD, Wilson TO, Podratz KC. Is it justified to classify patients to Stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer based on nodal involvement only? Gynecol Oncol 2006; 103:797.
- Onda T, Yoshikawa H, Yasugi T, et al. Patients with ovarian carcinoma upstaged to stage III after systematic lymphadenctomy have similar survival to Stage I/II patients and superior survival to other Stage III patients. Cancer 1998; 83:1555.
- Salani R, Backes FJ, Fung MF, et al. Posttreatment surveillance and diagnosis of recurrence in women with gynecologic malignancies: Society of Gynecologic Oncologists recommendations. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011; 204:466.
- Rustin G, van der Burg M, Griffin C, et al. Early versus delayed treatment of relapsed ovarian cancer. Lancet 2011; 377:380.
- Rustin GJ. Follow-up with CA125 after primary therapy of advanced ovarian cancer has major implications for treatment outcome and trial performances and should not be routinely performed. Ann Oncol 2011; 22 Suppl 8:viii45.
- Fleming ND, Cass I, Walsh CS, et al. CA125 surveillance increases optimal resectability at secondary cytoreductive surgery for recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2011; 121:249.
- Limei Z, Yong C, Yan X, et al. Accuracy of positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the diagnosis and restaging for recurrent ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2013; 23:598.
- Fruscio R, Corso S, Ceppi L, et al. Conservative management of early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer: results of a large retrospective series. Ann Oncol 2013; 24:138.