Overview of aerobic exercise testing in children and adolescents
- James M Pivarnik, PhD
James M Pivarnik, PhD
- Professor of Kinesiology, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics
- Michigan State University
- Dawn P Coe, PhD
Dawn P Coe, PhD
- Associate Professor, Department of Kinesiology, Recreation, and Sport Studies
- University of Tennessee
- Section Editors
- Albert C Hergenroeder, MD
Albert C Hergenroeder, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Sports Medicine; Adolescent Sports Medicine
- Professor & Chief of Pediatrics, Adolescent Medicine and Sports Medicine
- Baylor College of Medicine
- George B Mallory, MD
George B Mallory, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Pulmonology
- Associate Professor of Pediatrics
- Baylor College of Medicine
EXERCISE TESTING BASICS
Indications — Incremental aerobic exercise tests are performed in children and adolescents for a variety of reasons (table 1) . The primary indication is to provide the clinician with information about a young patient's physical working capacity. The information gained from an aerobic exercise test is helpful in determining:
●Whether a patient can perform daily activities within his or her functional capacity
●Whether he or she is responding appropriately to an exercise intervention program
●Whether chronic disease progression is affecting the patient's physical capacity
Contraindications — Exercise testing can be performed safely in most children. Absolute contraindications to exercise testing include:
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- EXERCISE TESTING BASICS
- Criteria for stopping the test
- Limitations in young children
- - Continuous
- - Discontinuous
- - Treadmill
- - Cycle
- AEROBIC CAPACITY
- Physiologic principles
- Maximum effort
- - VO2 plateau
- - Heart rate maximum
- - Respiratory exchange ratio maximum
- Normal capacity
- Submaximal capacity
- - Lactate threshold
- - Ventilatory threshold
- Training effects
- FUNCTIONAL AEROBIC IMPAIRMENT
- CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC MEDICAL CONDITIONS
- Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction
- Cystic fibrosis
- Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension
- Growth hormone deficiency
- HIV infection
- Cancer survivors
- Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
- Down syndrome
- Neuromuscular disease
- Systemic exertion intolerance disease
- Congenital heart disease