Medline ® Abstract for Reference 33
of 'Oral toxicity associated with chemotherapy'
Candida infections in patients with acute leukemia: ineffectiveness of nystatin prophylaxis and relationship between oropharyngeal and systemic candidiasis.
DeGregorio MW, Lee WM, Ries CA
Ninety-three hospitalizations of 70 patients, who underwent induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia to determine the effectiveness of oral nystatin in preventing oropharyngeal and systemic candidiasis were reviewed. Sixty-two percent of patients who received prophylactic nystatin and 58% of patients who did not receive nystatin developed oropharyngeal candidiasis; 11% of patients who received prophylaxis and 21% of those who did not receive prophylaxis developed systemic candidiasis. The use of oral nystatin did not significantly diminish the risk of developing either type of Candida infection. Oropharyngeal candidiasis occurred more commonly in patients who had severe and prolonged leukopenia, had received more parenteral antibiotics, and had developed chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Systemic candidiasis developed almost exclusively in patients who had prior oropharyngeal candidiasis. Guidelines for the empiric use of amphotericin B in these patients are provided.