Medline ® Abstracts for References 7-9
of 'Oral food challenges for diagnosis and management of food allergies'
Food allergy: A practice parameter update-2014.
Sampson HA, Aceves S, Bock SA, James J, Jones S, Lang D, Nadeau K, Nowak-Wegrzyn A, Oppenheimer J, Perry TT, Randolph C, Sicherer SH, Simon RA, Vickery BP, Wood R, Sampson HA, Randolph C, Bernstein D, Blessing-Moore J, Khan D, Lang D, Nicklas R, Oppenheimer J, Portnoy J, Randolph C, Schuller D, Spector S, Tilles SA, Wallace D, Sampson HA, Aceves S, Bock SA, James J, Jones S, Lang D, Nadeau K, Nowak-Wegrzyn A, Oppenheimer J, Perry TT, Randolph C, Sicherer SH, Simon RA, Vickery BP, Wood R
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;134(5):1016.
This parameter was developed by the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, representing the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma&Immunology (AAAAI); the American College of Allergy, Asthma&Immunology (ACAAI); and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma&Immunology (JCAAI). The AAAAI and the ACAAI have jointly accepted responsibility for establishing "Food Allergy: A practice parameter update-2014." This is a complete and comprehensive document at the current time. The medical environment is a changing one, and not all recommendations will be appropriate for all patients. Because this document incorporated the efforts of many participants, no single individual, including those who served on the Joint Task Force, is authorized to provide an official AAAAI or ACAAI interpretation of these practice parameters. Any request for information about or an interpretation of these practice parameters by the AAAAI or ACAAI should be directed to the Executive Offices of the AAAAI, ACAAI, and JCAAI. These parameters are not designed for use by pharmaceutical companies in drug promotion.
EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines: diagnosis and management of food allergy.
Muraro A, Werfel T, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, Roberts G, Beyer K, Bindslev-Jensen C, Cardona V, Dubois A, duToit G, Eigenmann P, Fernandez Rivas M, Halken S, Hickstein L, Høst A, Knol E, Lack G, Marchisotto MJ, Niggemann B, Nwaru BI, Papadopoulos NG, Poulsen LK, Santos AF, Skypala I, Schoepfer A, Van Ree R, Venter C, Worm M, Vlieg-Boerstra B, Panesar S, de Silva D, Soares-Weiser K, Sheikh A, Ballmer-Weber BK, Nilsson C, de Jong NW, Akdis CA, EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines Group
Allergy. 2014 Aug;69(8):1008-25. Epub 2014 Jun 9.
Food allergy can result in considerable morbidity, impact negatively on quality of life, and prove costly in terms of medical care. These guidelines have been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group, building on previous EAACI position papers on adverse reaction to foods and three recent systematic reviews on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of food allergy, and provide evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of food allergy. While the primary audience is allergists, this document is relevant for all other healthcare professionals, including primary care physicians, and pediatric and adult specialists, dieticians, pharmacists and paramedics. Our current understanding of the manifestations of food allergy, the role of diagnostic tests, and the effective management of patients of all ages with food allergy is presented. The acute management of non-life-threatening reactions is covered in these guidelines, but for guidance on the emergency management of anaphylaxis, readers are referred to the related EAACI Anaphylaxis Guidelines.
Department of Mother and Child Health, The Referral Centre for Food Allergy Diagnosis and Treatment Veneto Region, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
Prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy among children with atopic dermatitis.
Eigenmann PA, Sicherer SH, Borkowski TA, Cohen BA, Sampson HA
OBJECTIVE: There is a growing body of clinical and laboratory evidence to support the notion that food allergy plays a role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, the incidence of IgE-mediated food allergy in children with AD is not well established.
DESIGN: A prospective study to determine the prevalence of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity among patients referred to a university-based dermatologist for evaluation of AD.
SETTING: University hospital pediatric dermatology clinic.
PATIENTS: A total of 63 patients with AD were recruited (35 male; 32 white, 24 African-American, 7 Asian).
METHODS: Patients were assigned an AD symptom score (SCORAD) and were screened for food-specific serum IgE antibodies to six foods (milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, fish) known to be the most allergenic in children. The levels of food-specific serum IgE were determined by the CAP System fluoroscein-enzyme immunoassay (CAP); patients with a value>/=0.7 kIUa/L were invited for an additional allergy evaluation. Those with CAP values below the cutoff were considered not food allergic. Patients were considered to be allergic if they met one of the following criteria for at least one food: 1) reaction on food challenge; 2) CAP value more than the 95% confidence interval predictive for a reaction; 3) convincing history of an acute significant (hives, respiratory symptoms) reaction after the isolated ingestion of a food to which there was a positive CAP or prick skin test.
RESULTS: A total of 63 patients (median age, 2.8 years; median SCORAD, 41.1) were recruited; 22 had negative CAP values (without a significant difference in age or SCORAD score, compared with the 41 with positive specific IgE values). Further allergy evaluation was offered to the 41 remaining patients; 10 were lost to follow-up and 31 were evaluated further. Of these, 19 underwent a total of 50 food challenges (36 double-blind, placebo-controlled, and 14 open), with 11 patients experiencing 18 positive challenges (94% with skin reactions). Additionally, 6 patients had a convincing history with a predictive level of IgE; 5 had a convincing history with positive, indeterminate levels of IgE; and 1 had predictive levels of IgE (to egg and peanut) without a history of an acute reaction. Overall, 23/63 (37%; 95% confidence interval, 25% to 50%) had clinically significant IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity without a significant difference in age or symptom score between those with or without food allergy.
CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one third of children with refractory, moderate-severe AD have IgE-mediated clinical reactivity to food proteins. The prevalence of food allergy in this population is significantly higher than that in the general population, and an evaluation for food allergy should be considered in these patients.
Department of Pediatrics, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.