Medline ® Abstracts for References 49,50
of 'Oral food challenges for diagnosis and management of food allergies'
What safety measures need to be taken in oral food challenges in children?
Reibel S, Röhr C, Ziegert M, Sommerfeld C, Wahn U, Niggemann B
BACKGROUND: Food allergens are often accused of causing numerous ailments. This is particularly true for the pediatric population, where the incidence of food allergy is four times as high as in adults. As food challenges may provoke life-threatening reactions, intensive safety measures need to be taken during provocation, and prompt medical intervention may become necessary.
METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 349 oral challenges in 204 children with atopic dermatitis, looking for criteria to help the physician decide which patients need medical intervention.
RESULTS: A total of 178 (51%) oral food challenges with the four allergens (cow's milk [CM], hen's egg [HE], wheat, and soy) showed a positive clinical reaction. Of these, 120 (67%) needed medical intervention. In 42 (35%) cases, intervention was parenteral, and oral medication was given in 78 (65%) cases. There was a strong positive correlation (90%) between the level of specific IgE and the need for medical intervention (>or = 17.50 kU/l for CM, wheat, and soy;>or = 3.50 kU/l for HE). Patient history of food allergy was an indicator of the need for medical intervention (P = 0.01). A positive patient history and a high level of specific IgE were significantly (P=0.003) associated with parenteral medication in HE.
CONCLUSIONS: Patient history of food allergy is a reliable indicator of the need for medical intervention in the cases of CM, wheat, and soy regardless of the level of specific IgE. With HE, a positive patient history plus a high level of specific IgE significantly indicates the need for parenteral medication. On the basis of our results, we recommend establishing intravenous access in children with a level of specific IgE of>or = 17.50 kU/l (CAP class 4) to CM and wheat, or with specific IgE of>or =3.50 kU/l (CAP class 3) to HE.
Department of Pneumology and Immunology, University Children's Hospital Charitéof Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: case presentations and management lessons.
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;115(1):149.
Enterocolitis induced in infants by cow's milk and/or soy protein has been recognized for decades. Symptoms typically begin in the first month of life in association with failure to thrive and may progress to acidemia and shock. Symptoms resolve after the causal protein is removed from the diet but recur with a characteristic symptom pattern on re-exposure. Approximately 2 hours after reintroduction of the protein, vomiting ensues, followed by an elevation of the peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocyte count, diarrhea, and possibly lethargy and hypotension. The disorder is generally not associated with detectable food-specific IgE antibody. There are increasing reports of additional causal foods, prolonged clinical courses, and onset outside of early infancy, leading to description of a food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. The disorder poses numerous diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The purpose of this report is to delineate the characteristic clinical features and review the possible pathophysiologic basis to frame a rational strategy toward management.
Elliot and Roslyn Jaffe Food Allergy Institute, Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029-6574, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org