Medline ® Abstracts for References 22,23
of 'Oral food challenges for diagnosis and management of food allergies'
Food Challenge and Community-Reported Reaction Profiles in Food-Allergic Children Aged 1 and 4 Years: A Population-Based Study.
Chan JC, Peters RL, Koplin JJ, Dharmage SC, Gurrin LC, Wake M, Tang ML, Prescott S, Allen KJ, HealthNuts Study
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017;5(2):398.
BACKGROUND: Oral food challenge is the main tool for diagnosing food allergy, but there is little data on the reaction profiles of young children undergoing challenges, nor how these reactions compare to reactions on accidental ingestion in the community.
OBJECTIVES: To compare reaction profiles from food challenges and parent-reported reactions on accidental ingestion, and assess predictors of severe reactions.
METHODS: HealthNuts is a longitudinal population-based cohort study of 5276 1-year-old infants. Infants underwent skin prick tests and those with identifiable wheals were offered food challenges. Food challenges were repeated at age 4 years in those with previous food allergy or reporting new food allergies. Community-reported reactions were ascertained from parent questionnaires.
RESULTS: Food challenges were undertaken in 916 children at age 1 year and 357 children at age 4 years (a total of 2047 peanut, egg, or sesame challenges). Urticaria was the most common sign in positive challenges at both ages (age 1 year, 88.7%, and age 4 years, 71.2%) although angioedema was significantly more common at age 4 years (40.1%) than at age 1 year (12.9%). Anaphylaxis was equally uncommon at both ages (2.1% and 2.8% of positive challenges at ages 1 and 4 years, respectively) but more common for peanut than for egg (4.5% and 1.2% of positive challenges at ages 1 and 4 years, respectively). The patterns of presenting signs reported during community reactions were similar to those observed in formal food challenges. Serum food-specific IgE levels of 15 kU/L or more were associated with moderate to severe reactions but skin prick test was not.
CONCLUSIONS: There was a shift from the most common presenting reaction of urticaria during food challenges toward more angioedema in older children. Serum food-specific IgE levels were associated with reaction severity.
Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Skin prick test to egg white provides additional diagnostic utility to serum egg white-specific IgE antibody concentration in children.
Knight AK, Shreffler WG, Sampson HA, Sicherer SH, Noone S, Mofidi S, Nowak-Wegrzyn A
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;117(4):842.
BACKGROUND: Levels of IgE antibody to egg white of greater than 7 kIU/L are highly predictive of clinical reactivity to egg, and lower levels often require evaluation with oral food challenge (OFC) to establish definitive diagnosis. OFCs have inherent risks, and diagnostic criteria indicating high likelihood of passing would be clinically useful.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether the size of the skin prick test (SPT) to egg white adds diagnostic utility for children with low egg white-specific IgE antibody levels.
METHODS: A retrospective analysis of clinical history, egg white-specific IgE antibody levels, SPT responses, and egg OFC outcomes was performed.
RESULTS: Children who passed (n = 29) egg OFCs and those who failed (n = 45) did not differ significantly in age, clinical characteristics, or egg white-specific IgE levels. There were, however, significant differences between both egg white SPT wheal response size and egg/histamine SPT wheal index. Children who failed egg OFCs had a median wheal of 5.0 mm; those who passed had a median wheal of 3.0 mm (P = .003). Children who failed egg OFCs had a median egg/histamine index of 1.00; those who passed had a median index of 0.71 (P = .001). For egg white-specific IgE levels of less than 2.5 kIU/L, an SPT wheal of 3 mm or an egg/histamine index of 0.65 was associated with a 50% chance of passing.
CONCLUSION: In children with low egg white-specific IgE levels, those with smaller SPT wheal responses to egg were more likely to pass an egg OFC than those with larger wheal responses. The size of the egg white SPT response might provide additional information to determine the timing of egg OFC.
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The size of the egg white SPT wheal response might provide the clinician with additional information to determine the timing of egg OFC in children with low egg white-specific IgE antibody levels.
Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Immunology, Jaffe Food Allergy Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA.