Aldámiz-Echevarría L, Bilbao A, Andrade F, Elorz J, Prieto JA, Rodríguez-Soriano J
To evaluate plasma fatty acid (FA) composition of children with food allergy undergoing elimination diets that avoided the offending antigens.
Twenty-five children (14 male, 11 female) aged 3.8 +/- 1.6 years (range 2-7 years) affected of multiple food allergy and managed with elimination diets participated in a cross-sectional study. Results of plasma fatty acids were compared with data obtained in 61 healthy children.
The patients had significantly lower values for plasma content in total polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and long-chain omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (p<0.001) and particularly, in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5omega3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6omega3) (p<0.001). Moreover, all established indices (essential fatty acid [EFA]index ((omega3 +omega6)/(omega7 +omega9)) (p<0.001) and sufficiency of docosahexaenoic acid index (C22:6omega3/C22:5omega6) (p<0.001)) confirmed the presence of EFA deficiency.
Children with food allergy managed with restricted intake of foods such as milk, egg, fish and vegetables are at risk of developing a deficiency in EFA and particularly in omega3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are especially necessary for adequate growth, neurological development and cardiovascular health.
Divisions of Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Hospital de Cruces, Basque University School of Medicine, Bilbao, País Vasco, Spain. firstname.lastname@example.org