Medline ® Abstracts for References 11-14
of 'Oral food challenges for diagnosis and management of food allergies'
Eosinophilic esophagitis: a 10-year experience in 381 children.
Liacouras CA, Spergel JM, Ruchelli E, Verma R, Mascarenhas M, Semeao E, Flick J, Kelly J, Brown-Whitehorn T, Mamula P, Markowitz JE
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;3(12):1198.
BACKGROUND& AIMS: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a disorder characterized by a severe, isolated eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus unresponsive to aggressive acid blockade but responsive to the removal of dietary antigens. We present information relating to our 10-year experience in children diagnosed with EoE.
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study between January 1, 1994, and January 1, 2004, to evaluate all patients diagnosed with EoE. Clinical symptoms, demographic data, endoscopic findings, and the results of various treatment regimens were collected and evaluated.
RESULTS: A total of 381 patients (66% male, age 9.1 +/- 3.1 years) were diagnosed with EoE: 312 presented with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux; 69 presented with dysphagia. Endoscopically, 68% of patients had a visually abnormal esophagus; 32% had a normal-appearing esophagus despite a severe histologic esophageal eosinophilia. The average number of esophageal eosinophils (per 400 x high power field) proximally and distally were 23.3 +/- 10.5 and 38.7 +/- 13.3, respectively. Corticosteroids significantly improved clinical symptoms and esophageal histology; however, upon their withdrawal, the symptoms and esophageal eosinophilia recurred. Dietary restriction or complete dietary elimination using an amino acid-based formula significantly improved both the clinical symptoms and esophageal histology in 75 and 172 patients, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Medications such as corticosteroids are effective; however, upon withdrawal, EoE recurs. The removal of dietary antigens significantly improved clinical symptoms and esophageal histology in 98% of patients.
Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. email@example.com
Oral food challenges in children with a diagnosis of food allergy.
Fleischer DM, Bock SA, Spears GC, Wilson CG, Miyazawa NK, Gleason MC, Gyorkos EA, Murphy JR, Atkins D, Leung DY
J Pediatr. 2011;158(4):578.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the outcome of oral food challenges in patients placed on elimination diets based primarily on positive serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) immunoassay results.
STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective chart review of 125 children aged 1-19 years (median age, 4 years) evaluated between January 2007 and August 2008 for IgE-mediated food allergy at National Jewish Health and who underwent an oral food challenge. Clinical history, prick skin test results, and serum allergen-specific IgE test results were obtained.
RESULTS: The data were summarized for food avoidance and oral food challenge results. Depending on the reason for avoidance, 84%-93% of the foods being avoided were returned to the diet after an oral food challenge, indicating that the vast majority of foods that had been restricted could be tolerated at discharge.
CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of anaphylaxis, the primary reliance on serum food-specific IgE testing to determine the need for a food elimination diet is not sufficient, especially in children with atopic dermatitis. In those circumstances, oral food challenges may be indicated to confirm food allergy status.
Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO 80206, USA.
Prediction of anaphylaxis during peanut food challenge: usefulness of the peanut skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE level.
Wainstein BK, Studdert J, Ziegler M, Ziegler JB
Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010;21(4 Pt 1):603.
Cutoffs (decision points) of the peanut skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE level for predicting peanut allergy have been proposed. It is not known whether decision points indicating a significant risk of severe reactions on challenge differ from those indicating probable allergy. We aimed at determining the usefulness of allergy tests for predicting the risk of anaphylaxis on challenge following the ingestion of up to 12 g of peanut in peanut-sensitized children. Children attending the Allergy Clinic who had a positive peanut SPT and completed open-label in-hospital peanut challenges were included. The challenge protocol provided for challenges to be continued beyond initial mild reactions. Eighty-nine in-hospital peanut challenges were performed. Thirty-four were excluded as the challenge was not completed, leaving 55 for analysis. Children who completed the challenge and did not react (n = 28) or reacted without anaphylaxis (n = 6) represented the comparison group (n = 34). The study group comprised 21 children whose challenge resulted in anaphylaxis. The mean peanut SPT wheal size and specific IgE level were associated with the severity of reactions on challenge. Among the 21 children, who developed anaphylaxis, in only 3 cases was anaphylaxis the initial reaction.Unexpectedly, a history of anaphylaxis was not predictive of anaphylaxis on challenge. Anaphylaxis developed at cumulative doses of peanut ranging from 0.02 to 11.7 g. Provided that a fixed amount of peanut is ingested, available tests for peanut allergy may assist in predicting the risk of anaphylaxis during challenge in peanut-sensitized children.
Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Sydney Children's Hospital, High Street, Randwick, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org
The relationship of allergen-specific IgE levels and oral food challenge outcome.
Perry TT, Matsui EC, Kay Conover-Walker M, Wood RA
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;114(1):144.
BACKGROUND: Oral food challenges remain the gold standard for the diagnosis of food allergy. However, clear clinical and laboratory guidelines have not been firmly established to determine when oral challenges should be performed.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the value of food-specific IgE levels in predicting challenge outcome.
METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 604 food challenges in 391 children was performed. All children had food-specific IgE levels measured by means of CAP-RAST before challenge. Data were analyzed to determine the relationship between food-specific IgE levels and challenge outcome, as well as the relationship between other clinical parameters and challenge outcome.
RESULTS: Forty-five percent of milk challenges were passed compared with 57% for egg, 59% for peanut, 67% for wheat, and 72% for soy. Specific IgE levels were higher among patients who failed challenges than among those who passed (P</=.03 for each food). When seeking a specific IgE level at which a 50% pass rate could be expected, a cutoff level of 2 kUA/L was determined for milk, egg, and peanut. Data were less clear for wheat and soy. Coexistent eczema or asthma was associated with failed egg challenges, but other atopic disease was otherwise not associated with challenge outcome.
CONCLUSIONS: Allergen-specific IgE concentrations to milk, egg, and peanut and, to a lesser extent, wheat and soy serve as useful predictors of challenge outcome and should be considered when selecting patients for oral challenge to these foods.
Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.