Medline ® Abstracts for References 1,26-28
of 'Oral food challenges for diagnosis and management of food allergies'
Work Group report: oral food challenge testing.
Nowak-Wegrzyn A, Assa'ad AH, Bahna SL, Bock SA, Sicherer SH, Teuber SS, Adverse Reactions to Food Committee of American Academy of Allergy, Asthma&Immunology
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123(6 Suppl):S365.
Oral food challenges are procedures conducted by allergists/immunologists to make an accurate diagnosis of immediate, and occasionally delayed, adverse reactions to foods. The timing of the challenge is carefully chosen based on the individual patient history and the results of skin prick tests and food specific serum IgE values. The type of the challenge is determined by the history, the age of the patient, and the likelihood of encountering subjective reactions. The food challenge requires preparation of the patient for the procedure and preparation of the office for the organized conduct of the challenge, for a careful assessment of the symptoms and signs and the treatment of reactions. The starting dose, the escalation of the dosing, and the intervals between doses are determined based on experience and the patient's history. The interpretation of the results of the challenge and arrangements for follow-up after a challenge are important. A negative oral food challenge result allows introduction of the food into the diet, whereas a positive oral food challenge result provides a sound basis for continued avoidance of the food.
Jaffe Food Allergy Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
Natural History of Food-Triggered Atopic Dermatitis and Development of Immediate Reactions in Children.
Chang A, Robison R, Cai M, Singh AM
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2016 Mar-Apr;4(2):229-236.e1. Epub 2015 Nov 17.
BACKGROUND: Case reports suggest that children with food-triggered atopic dermatitis (AD) on elimination diets may develop immediate reactions on accidental ingestion or reintroduction of an avoided food.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to systematically study the incidence and risk factors associated with these immediate reactions.
METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 298 patients presenting to a tertiary-care allergy-immunology clinic based on concern for food-triggered AD was performed. Data regarding triggering foods, laboratory testing, and clinical reactions were collected prospectively from the initial visit. Food-triggered AD was diagnosed by an allergist-immunologist with clinical evaluation and laboratory testing. We identified immediate reactions as any reaction to a food for which there was evidence of sIgE and for which patients developed timely allergic signs and symptoms. Differences between children with and without new immediate reactions were determined by a Mann-Whitney,χ(2), or Fisher's exact test as appropriate.
RESULTS: A total of 19% of patients with food-triggered AD and no previous history of immediate reactions developed new immediate food reactions after initiation of an elimination diet. Seventy percent of reactions were cutaneous but 30% were anaphylaxis. Cow's milk and egg were the most common foods causing immediate-type reactions. Avoidance of a food was associated with increased risk of developing immediate reactions to that food (P<.01). Risk was not related to specific IgE level nor a specific food.
CONCLUSION: A significant number of patients with food-triggered AD may develop immediate-type reactions. Strict elimination diets need to be thoughtfully prescribed as they may lead to decreased oral tolerance.
Division of Allergy/Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.
Development of anaphylactic cow's milk allergy following cow's milk elimination for eosinophilic esophagitis in a teenager.
Soller L, Mill C, Avinashi V, Teoh T, Chan ES
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017;5(5):1413. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
Faculty of Medicine, Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Risk of oral food challenges.
Perry TT, Matsui EC, Conover-Walker MK, Wood RA
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;114(5):1164.
BACKGROUND: Oral food challenges are essential to the diagnosis of food allergy; however, little has been reported regarding the risks of performing food challenges in children with suspected food allergy.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk and reaction severity of failed oral food challenges.
METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on children who underwent food challenges to milk, egg, peanut, soy, and/or wheat in a university-based pediatric allergy clinic over a 7-year period.
RESULTS: Of the 584 challenges completed, 253 (43%) resulted in an allergic reaction. There were 90 milk, 56 egg, 71 peanut, 21 soy, and 15 wheat failed challenges. Of patients who failed, there were 197 (78%) cutaneous, 108 (43%) gastrointestinal, 66 (26%) oral, 67 (26%) lower respiratory, and 62 (25%) upper respiratory reactions. No patients had cardiovascular symptoms. There was no difference between foods in the severity of failed challenges or the type of treatment required to reverse symptoms.All reactions were reversible with short-acting antihistamines +/- epinephrine, beta-agonists, and/or corticosteroids. No children required hospitalization, and there were no deaths.
CONCLUSIONS: There are risks associated with food challenges, and the risks are similar for each of the foods studied. Given the benefits that result from a negative challenge, these risks are reasonable when challenges are performed under the guidance of an experienced practitioner in a properly equipped setting.
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and Immunology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.