Opioid withdrawal in adolescents
- Shan Yin, MD, MPH
Shan Yin, MD, MPH
- Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati School of Medicine
- Division of Emergency Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital
- Medical Director, Cincinnati Drug and Poison Information Center
- Section Editor
- Michele M Burns, MD, MPH
Michele M Burns, MD, MPH
- Section Editor — Pediatric Toxicology
- Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
- Harvard Medical School
- Deputy Editor
- James F Wiley, II, MD, MPH
James F Wiley, II, MD, MPH
- Senior Deputy Editor — Adult and Pediatric Emergency Medicine
- Senior Deputy Editor — Primary Care Sports Medicine (Adolescents and Adults)
- Clinical Professor of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine/Traumatology
- University of Connecticut School of Medicine
Opioids have analgesic and central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects and the potential to cause euphoria. Morphine is the prototypic opioid. Heroin is a derivative of morphine and is a commonly abused opioid.
Opioids are effective in the treatment of acute and chronic pain as analgesics and sedatives and as anesthetic agents. They have the potential to be abused for these effects and the associated feeling of euphoria.
The epidemiology, pharmacology, clinical manifestations, and management of opioid withdrawal in adolescents are reviewed here. Opioid withdrawal in the neonate; acute opioid intoxication in children and adolescents; and opioid abuse, intoxication, withdrawal, and treatment in adults are discussed separately:
●(See "Neonatal abstinence syndrome".)
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- SYMPTOMS OF OPIOID WITHDRAWAL
- CLINICAL FEATURES AND DIAGNOSIS
- Physical examination
- DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
- Ethanol withdrawal
- Sedative-hypnotic withdrawal
- Sympathomimetic intoxication
- Cholinergic poisoning
- ACUTE MANAGEMENT OF OPIOID WITHDRAWAL
- Rapid detoxification
- MEDICALLY SUPERVISED DETOXIFICATION
- TREATMENT PROGRAMS
- Residential programs
- Outpatient day programs
- MAINTENANCE THERAPY
- Non-pharmacologic support