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Oculopharyngeal, distal, and congenital muscular dystrophies

Basil T Darras, MD
Section Editors
Douglas R Nordli, Jr, MD
Jeremy M Shefner, MD, PhD
Deputy Editor
John F Dashe, MD, PhD


The muscular dystrophies are an inherited group of progressive myopathic disorders resulting from defects in a number of genes required for normal muscle function. Some of the genes responsible for these conditions have been identified. Muscle weakness is the primary symptom.

The pathogenesis, genetics, and clinical characteristics of oculopharyngeal, distal, and congenital muscular dystrophies are discussed here. Other muscular dystrophies are presented separately. (See "Clinical features and diagnosis of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy" and "Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy" and "Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy" and "Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy" and "Myotonic dystrophy: Etiology, clinical features, and diagnosis".)


Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a rare myopathy that is characterized by ocular and pharyngeal muscle involvement [1,2].

Clinical features — OPMD typically presents with ptosis, dysarthria, and dysphagia. It can also be associated with proximal and distal extremity weakness. The onset is usually in middle age with asymmetric involvement of the levator palpebrae muscles. Progressive extraocular weakness subsequently develops. In general, OPMD is a slowly progressive myopathy. However, ptosis can occlude vision, and severe dysphagia may lead to weight loss and death if not treated.

Differential diagnosis — OPMD is distinguished from facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) by the different distributions of weakness. Extraocular weakness is far more severe in OPMD. (See "Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy".)


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Literature review current through: Sep 2016. | This topic last updated: Jul 15, 2016.
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