Obesity, weight reduction, and cardiovascular disease
- Elizabeth Jackson, MD, MPH
Elizabeth Jackson, MD, MPH
- Associate Professor of Medicine
- Division of Cardiovascular Medicine
- University of Michigan Health System
- Melvyn Rubenfire, MD
Melvyn Rubenfire, MD
- Professor of Internal Medicine
- University of Michigan Health Systems
Obesity is an expanding public health problem worldwide, creating a global health epidemic. According to the World Health Organization, worldwide obesity has doubled since 1980 with 1.5 billion adults considered obese in 2008 [1,2].
●In the United States, 34 percent of US adults aged 20 years and over are overweight, 34 percent are obese, and 6 percent are extremely obese .
●In Australia, 54 percent of the population is considered overweight, while 18 percent are obese .
●In China nearly one-quarter of the country's total population of 1.3 billion is now overweight .
Obesity has long been associated with an increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). In a meta-analysis of studies assessing the impact of body weight on CHD, there was a 29 percent increase in CHD for each five-unit increase in body mass index (BMI) (table 1A and table 1B) . The risk of CHD in obese and overweight persons is compounded by the frequent coexistence of other CHD risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. How much of the risk is due to obesity alone has been uncertain. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which obesity (particularly abdominal obesity) cause or accelerate coronary atherogenesis are also uncertain.
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- DEFINITION OF OBESITY
- OBESITY AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
- Coronary disease
- - Mechanisms of risk
- Metabolic syndrome
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus
- Left ventricular hypertrophy
- Sympathetic nervous system
- Sleep apnea
- BMI, metabolic parameters, and CVD risk
- Heart failure
- ECG in morbid obesity
- Abdominal obesity
- OBESITY AND ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY
- BENEFITS OF WEIGHT LOSS