Nutritional considerations in type 1 diabetes mellitus
- Linda M Delahanty, MS, RD
Linda M Delahanty, MS, RD
- Assistant Professor in Medicine
- Harvard Medical School
- David K McCulloch, MD
David K McCulloch, MD
- Washington Permanente Medical Group
- Section Editors
- Irl B Hirsch, MD
Irl B Hirsch, MD
- Section Editor — Diabetes Mellitus
- Professor of Medicine
- University of Washington School of Medicine
- Timothy O Lipman, MD
Timothy O Lipman, MD
- Section Editor — Nutrition
- GI-Hepatology-Nutrition Section
- Washington DC Veterans Affairs Medical Center
Diet and physical activity are critically important in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. Basic principles of nutritional management, however, are often poorly understood, by both clinicians and their patients.
The nutrition prescription for patients with type 1 diabetes should aim to optimally manage the "ABCs" of diabetes control: glycated hemoglobin (A1C), blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. The prescription must also be tailored for the individual patient to address diabetes complications and other concomitant conditions. The nutritional goals for people with type 1 diabetes are to:
●Maintain as near-normal blood glucose levels as possible, by integrating insulin therapy into each individual's diet and physical activity patterns.
●Achieve optimal blood pressure and lipid levels.
●Provide adequate calories for achieving and maintaining a reasonable body weight, normal growth, and development.To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you:
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- MEDICAL NUTRITION THERAPY
- CARBOHYDRATE CONSISTENCY
- Meal planning
- - Basic carbohydrate counting
- - Exchange system
- - Sample menus
- Insulin adjustments
- - Advanced carbohydrate counting
- - Elevated blood glucose levels
- - Treatment of hypoglycemia
- PHYSICAL ACTIVITY/EXERCISE
- WEIGHT MANAGEMENT
- Weight gain with intensive therapy
- Estimating desirable body weight
- Estimating caloric intake
- NUTRITIONAL CONTENT
- Glycemic index and glycemic load
- Alcohol intake
- Dietary recommendations
- MEAL-INSULIN TIMING
- EATING DISORDERS
- PROMOTING DIETARY COMPLIANCE
- SOCIETY GUIDELINE LINKS
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS