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Nutrition support in critically ill patients: Parenteral nutrition

Author
David Seres, MD
Section Editors
Polly E Parsons, MD
Timothy O Lipman, MD
Deputy Editor
Geraldine Finlay, MD

INTRODUCTION

Parenteral nutrition (PN) support refers to the provision of calories, amino acids, electrolytes, vitamins, minerals, trace elements, and fluids via a parenteral route. Access, prescribing, monitoring, and complications of parenteral nutrition are reviewed here.

The goals, outcomes, indications, contraindications, and nutritional requirements for parenteral nutrition are discussed separately. (See "Nutrition support in critically ill patients: An overview".)

The American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition recommendations for managing shortages relevant to components of parenteral nutrition can be accessed at the following site: http://www.nutritioncare.org/Professional_Resources/Drug_Shortages_Update/.

INDICATIONS AND CONTRAINDICATIONS

The indications and contraindications for parenteral nutrition are described elsewhere. (See "Nutrition support in critically ill patients: An overview", section on 'Patient selection'.)

INITIATION

In order to initiate parenteral nutrition, appropriate access must be obtained and the prescription (ie, composition and infusion rate) must be determined. Guidelines suggest that when tolerance to enteral nutrition is evident, parenteral nutrition should be weaned and discontinued when >60 percent of the patients' needs are met enterally, although there are no data to support this practice [1].  

              

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Literature review current through: Nov 2016. | This topic last updated: Fri Mar 04 00:00:00 GMT+00:00 2016.
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References
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