Normal sexual development
- Olaf Hiort, MD
Olaf Hiort, MD
- University of Lübeck
- Section Editors
- Peter J Snyder, MD
Peter J Snyder, MD
- Editor-in-Chief — Endocrinology
- Section Editor — Pituitary Disease; Male Reproductive Endocrinology
- Professor of Medicine
- University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
- Alvin M Matsumoto, MD
Alvin M Matsumoto, MD
- Section Editor — Male Reproductive Endocrinology
- Professor of Medicine
- University of Washington School of Medicine
Sex and gender development in humans is tightly controlled by genetic factors, which induce organ (especially gonadal) development and androgen-dependent programming in a tissue-specific and time-dependent manner. Modulation is facilitated through endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine steroid synthesis, as well as through the recruitment of many other regulators involved in the specificity of androgen action through modification of the hormone-receptor complexes.
This topic will review the major steps in normal early sex differentiation . Gender development and the hormonal regulation of testosterone production, the role of androgens and gonadotropins in spermatogenesis, normal breast development, normal pubertal development, and common clinical issues in disorders (or differences) of sex development (DSDs) are discussed separately.
●(See "Male reproductive physiology".)
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- Anatomic aspects
- - Internal urogenital tract
- - External genitalia
- Gonadal development
- NORMAL MALE DEVELOPMENT
- Testicular determination
- Development of the male phenotype
- - Androgen action
- NORMAL FEMALE DEVELOPMENT
- Ovarian determination
- Development of the female phenotype