Noninvasive ventilation for acute and impending respiratory failure in children
- Joshua Nagler, MD
Joshua Nagler, MD
- Assistant Professor of Medicine
- Harvard Medical School
- Ira M Cheifetz, MD, FCCM, FAARC
Ira M Cheifetz, MD, FCCM, FAARC
- Professor of Pediatrics and Anesthesiology
- Duke Children's Hospital
- Section Editor
- Adrienne G Randolph, MD, MSc
Adrienne G Randolph, MD, MSc
- Section Editor — Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
- Professor of Anaesthesia and Pediatrics
- Harvard Medical School
- Deputy Editor
- James F Wiley, II, MD, MPH
James F Wiley, II, MD, MPH
- Senior Deputy Editor — UpToDate
- Deputy Editor — Adult and Pediatric Emergency Medicine
- Deputy Editor — Primary Care Sports Medicine (Adolescents and Adults)
- Clinical Professor of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine/Traumatology
- University of Connecticut School of Medicine
This topic will focus on the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) for acute and impending respiratory failure, including benefits and risks, indications and contraindications, approach to initiation, predictors of NIV failure (need for tracheal intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation), and potential complications from use of NIV.
The use of NIV for apnea and respiratory distress syndrome in premature and term neonates, chronic respiratory failure from neuromuscular disease, post-extubation respiratory distress, and obstructive sleep apnea are discussed separately as follows:
●(See "Prevention and treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants" and "Noninvasive oxygen delivery and oxygen monitoring in the newborn", section on 'Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation' and "Prevention and treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants", section on 'Assisted ventilation techniques'.)
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- Modes of ventilation
- PATIENT SELECTION
- Choosing an interface
- - Interface sizing
- Skin protection
- Affixing the interface
- Selecting the mode of ventilation
- Initial settings
- Assessment of effectiveness
- PREDICTORS OF FAILURE
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS