Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema
- Michael M Givertz, MD
Michael M Givertz, MD
- Professor of Medicine
- Harvard Medical School
Pulmonary edema is due to the movement of excess fluid into the alveoli as a result of an alteration in one or more of Starling's forces. In cardiogenic pulmonary edema, a high pulmonary capillary pressure (as estimated clinically from the pulmonary artery wedge pressure) is responsible for the abnormal fluid movement . (See "Pathophysiology of cardiogenic pulmonary edema" and "Evaluation of acute decompensated heart failure".)
In contrast, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema is caused by various disorders in which factors other than elevated pulmonary capillary pressure are responsible for protein and fluid accumulation in the alveoli . The distinction between cardiogenic and noncardiogenic causes is not always possible, since the clinical syndrome may represent a combination of several different disorders. The diagnosis is important, however, because treatment varies considerably depending upon the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms.
THE STARLING RELATIONSHIP
Fluid balance between the interstitium and vascular bed in the lung, as in other microcirculations, is determined by the Starling relationship, which predicts the net flow of liquid across a membrane. This can be expressed in the following equation:
Net filtration = (Lp x S) x (delta hydraulic pressure - delta oncotic pressure)
= (Lp x S) x [(Pcap - Pif) - s(πcap - πif)]
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- THE STARLING RELATIONSHIP
- Definition of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema
- PERMEABILITY PULMONARY EDEMA DUE TO ARDS
- Presentation and diagnosis
- - Distinction from heart failure
- - Other lung diseases
- OTHER NONCARDIOGENIC FORMS OF PULMONARY EDEMA
- High altitude pulmonary edema
- Neurogenic pulmonary edema
- Reperfusion pulmonary edema
- Re-expansion pulmonary edema
- Opioid overdose
- Salicylate toxicity
- Pulmonary embolism
- Viral infections
- Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease
- ABSENCE OF PULMONARY EDEMA WITH HYPOALBUMINEMIA