Medline ® Abstract for Reference 12
of 'Nocturnal enuresis in children: Management'
Primary nocturnal enuresis: current.
Am Fam Physician. 1999;59(5):1205.
Primary nocturnal enuresis sometimes presents significant psychosocial problems for children and their parents. Causative factors may include maturational delay, genetic influence, difficulties in waking and decreased nighttime secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Anatomic abnormalities are usually not found, and psychologic causes are unlikely. Evaluation of enuresis usually requires no more than a complete history, a focused physical examination, and urine specific gravity and dipstick tests. Nonpharmacologic treatments include motivational therapy, behavioral conditioning and bladder-training exercises. Pharmacologic therapy includes imipramine, anticholinergic medication and desmopressin. These drugs have been used with varying degrees of success.
Section of Urology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756-0001, USA. Marc.Cendron@Hitchcock.org