Medline ® Abstract for Reference 15
of 'Nocturnal enuresis in children: Etiology and evaluation'
Primary nocturnal enuresis in children. Background and treatment.
Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1994;156:1.
UNLABELLED: The aim of the present studies was to investigate background factors and treatment in children with monosymptomatic primary nocturnal enuresis. The study material comprised enuretics, former enuretics and controls from the municipal community of Falkenberg on the west coast of Sweden. Whenever possible all investigations were made with the children staying in their own home environment. Different background factors have been suspected as being causative: sleep disturbances, behavioural or psychological disturbances, small bladder capacity, increased night diuresis and an insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone during sleep. These factors have been investigated in these studies. The treatment of enuresis has been dominated by the alarm and antidiuretic treatment with DDAVP. Primary nocturnal monosymptomatic enuresis is a common problem in childhood. In this study the prevalence among 392 seven year old children was 7.3%. A prior history of enuresis was found in 65% of families of the enuretics compared to 25% in controls. The enuretic children showed no statistically significant differences in behavioural or psychological problems compared to non-enuretic children. Enuretic children were described as heavy sleepers by their parents and a wake-up test performed at home showed that they were statistically significantly harder to arouse than the controls. Children with nocturnal enuresis, former enuretics and controls did not differ in social or behavioural traits in an interview study.No signs of symptom substitution was found when enuresis was resolved. Enuretic children had a normal bladder capacity and no statistically significant difference was found compared to controls and former enuretics. The enuretic children showed a normal calcium-creatinine quota in the urine. Former enuretic children showed a significantly enhanced calcium/creatinine quota compared to enuretics and controls. Enuretic children had a statistically significant lower morning plasma level of the anti diuretic hormone vasopressin than non-enuretic children. Enuretic children were treated for 12 weeks with DDAVP or the alarm. DDAVP treated patients had a more rapid effect compared with alarm treated patients. Alarm treated children had a lower relapse frequency. Enuretic children were treated in a randomised, double blind, double dummy, cross over, placebo-controlled study with DDAVP 20 micrograms intranasally by a single dose pipette or 200 micrograms orally as a tablet. Both methods were equally effective in controlling enuresis, but significantly superior to placebo.
CONCLUSION: Enuretic children are normal, well adjusted children with a normal bladder capacity, a high level of arousal threshold, and a low morning level of plasma vasopressin. The alarm and DDAVP are equally effective in treating enuresis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Institute of Pediatrics, Lunds University Hospital, Sweden.