Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2017 UpToDate, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Medline ® Abstract for Reference 27

of 'Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis)'

Diagnosis, incidence, and outcomes of suspected typhlitis in oncology patients--experience in a tertiary pediatric surgical center in the United Kingdom.
Mullassery D, Bader A, Battersby AJ, Mohammad Z, Jones EL, Parmar C, Scott R, Pizer BL, Baillie CT
J Pediatr Surg. 2009;44(2):381.
BACKGROUND: Typhlitis is clinically defined by the triad of neutropenia, abdominal pain, and fever. Radiologic evidence of colonic inflammation supports the diagnosis. We report a single United Kingdom tertiary center experience with management and outcome of typhlitis for 5 years.
METHODS: Hospital computerized records were screened for ultrasound or computerized tomographic scan requests for abdominal pain for all oncology inpatients (2001-2005). Retrospective case note analysis was used to collect clinical data for patients with features of typhlitis.
RESULTS: The incidence of typhlitis among oncology inpatients was 6.7% (40/596) among oncology inpatients and 11.6% (40/345) among those on chemotherapy. Eighteen children had radiologically confirmed typhlitis, and 22 had clinical features alone. Most (93%) patients responded to conservative management. Eighteen children had a variable period of bowel rest, including 12 patients who were supported with total parenteral nutrition. Three patientshad laparotomy that revealed extensive colonic bowel necrosis (1), perforated gastric ulcer (1), and a perforated appendix (1). A single child died of fulminant gram-negative sepsis without surgical intervention.
CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of typhlitis was based on clinical features, supported by radiologic evidence in almost half of the study group. Surgical intervention should be reserved for specific complications or where another surgical pathologic condition cannot reasonably be ruled out.
Department of Pediatric Surgery, The Royal Liverpool Children's Hospital (Alderhey), Liverpool, UK. mdhanya@liverpool.ac.uk