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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 11

of 'Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis)'

Necrotizing enterocolitis in neutropenia and chemotherapy: a clinical update and old lessons relearned.
Bremer CT, Monahan BP
Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2006;8(4):333.
Neutropenic enterocolitis (NE) must be recognized in patients with fever, neutropenia, and abdominal pain. Classically, NE has been described in patients with hematologic malignancies treated with intensive chemotherapy. Current interest in NE has increased due to recent cases associated with newer, more intensive chemotherapy in solid tumors. This review discusses pathology, clinical presentation, and treatment of NE. Ultrasonography or CT scans are the best radiographic studies to confirm the diagnosis. Management options, including antimicrobial therapy, surgery, and supportive care, are discussed. Chemotherapy incorporating the taxane family of drugs (paclitaxel and docetaxel) associated with NE is also reviewed with observations regarding the earlier onset of the disease in the first weeks following chemotherapy. Even with currently recommended therapy, a high mortality rate, approximating 45%, can occur. Best outcomes for NE rely upon understanding of risks for the condition, prompt empiric therapy with broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, systemic antifungal therapy, and meticulous attention to supportive care.
Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814-4217, USA.