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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 79

of 'Neurogenic pulmonary edema'

Pulmonary edema and pleural effusion in norepinephrine-stimulated rats--hemodynamic or inflammatory effect?
Rassler B, Reissig C, Briest W, Tannapfel A, Zimmer HG
Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Aug;250(1-2):55-63.
Stimulation with norepinephrine (NE) leads to pulmonary edema and pleural effusion in rats. These pulmonary fluid shifts may result from pulmonary congestion due to the hemodynamic effects of NE and/or inflammation with an increase in vascular permeability. The contribution of these two factors were investigated in the present study. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received continuous i.v. NE infusion (0.1 mg/kg/h) over time intervals between 90 min and 72 h. After heart catheterization, pleural fluid (PF) and lung tissue were obtained. In some of the animals, a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed. Pulmonary edema and inflammation were shown histologically. We determined the expression of interleukin (IL)-6 as one of the most potent acute-phase protein mediators in serum, PF and BAL supernatant fluid (BALF) using ELISA as well as in the lung tissue using Western blotting. Total protein concentration in BALF and PF served as indicators of increased capillary permeability. Pulmonary edema and pleural effusion appeared coincidentally with an increase in total peripheral resistance (TPR) after 6 h of NE infusion. PF reached a maximum between 8 and 16 h (2.2 +/- 0.3 ml, controls<0.5 ml) and disappeared within 48 h. Activation of IL-6 in the fluids was observed after 8 h of NE stimulation. In the lung tissue it started after 12 h and reached 330% of the control value after 48 h. Pulmonary inflammation was documented histologically. It was accompanied by increased protein concentration in BALF after 24 h of NE treatment. Hemodynamic effects of NE are the main causative factors in the initial phase of the pulmonary fluid shifts. Additionally, NE leads to an activation of cytokines such as IL-6 and to inflammation and to an increase in capillary permeability. However, inflammation and increased capillary permeability occurred later than pulmonary edema and pleural effusion. Hence, we conclude that they are secondary factors which may contribute to maintain the fluid shifts over a longer period of time.
Carl-Ludwig-Institute of Physiology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. rasb@medizin.uni-leipzig.de