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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 20

of 'Neurogenic pulmonary edema'

Neurogenic pulmonary edema in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Muroi C, Keller M, Pangalu A, Fortunati M, Yonekawa Y, Keller E
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2008;20(3):188.
Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE), leading to cardiopulmonary dysfunction, is a potentially life-threatening complication in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We sought to assess the clinical presentation and risk factors for the development of NPE after SAH. The database contained prospectively collected information on 477 patients with SAH. Baseline characteristics, clinical and radiologic severity of the bleeding, localization of the ruptured aneurysm, and clinical outcome of patients with NPE were compared with those of patients without NPE. Further, in patients with NPE, intracranial pressure, serum cardiac biomarkers, and hemodynamic parameters during the acute phase were evaluated retrospectively. The incidence of NPE was 8% (39 of 477 patients). Most patients with NPE were severely impaired and all of them presented with radiologically severe hemorrhage. The incidence of NPE was significantly higher in patients with ruptured aneurysm in the posterior circulation. Elevated intracranial pressure was found in 67%, pathologically high cardiac biomarkers in up to 83% of patients with NPE. However, no patient suffered from persistent cardiac dysfunction. Compared with patients without NPE, patients with NPE showed poor neurologic outcome (Glasgow outcome scale 1 to 3 in 25% vs.77% of patients). In conclusion, patients with NPE have a high mortality rate more likely due to theirseverity grade of the bleeding. Morbidity and mortality due to cardiopulmonary failure might be reduced by appropriate recognition and treatment. The awareness of and knowledge about occurrence, clinical presentation, and treatment of NPE, are essential for all those potentially confronted with patients with SAH in the acute phase.
Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. carl.muroi@usz.ch