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Neonatal pneumonia

Michael E Speer, MD
Section Editors
Joseph A Garcia-Prats, MD
Morven S Edwards, MD
Deputy Editor
Carrie Armsby, MD, MPH


Pneumonia is an important cause of neonatal infection and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries [1,2].

The epidemiology, microbiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of neonatal pneumonia are reviewed here. Neonatal sepsis and specific pathogens are discussed separately. (See "Clinical features, evaluation, and diagnosis of sepsis in term and late preterm infants" and "Management and outcome of sepsis in term and late preterm infants".)


Neonatal pneumonia can have early or late onset. Bacteria are the principal pathogens for both types. (See 'Microbiology' below.)

Routes of acquisition — The route of acquisition varies in part with the time of onset of the pneumonia.

Early-onset pneumonia — Early-onset pneumonia, generally within three days of birth, is acquired from the mother by one of three routes:

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Literature review current through: Oct 2017. | This topic last updated: Jul 27, 2017.
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