Neonatal and infantile erythroderma
- Moise L Levy, MD
Moise L Levy, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Dermatology
- Clinical Professor of Dermatology and Pediatrics
- Baylor College of Medicine
- Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine
- Dell Medical School/University of Texas, Austin
Erythroderma is a diffuse and persistent erythema of the skin involving at least 90 percent of the body surface . Although relatively uncommon in pediatric patients, erythroderma may be the clinical presentation of a wide range of acquired and inherited diseases, including infections, inflammatory skin diseases, ichthyoses, and congenital immunodeficiencies.
This topic will review the causes of erythroderma in neonates and infants and the approach to the diagnosis and management. Erythroderma in adults is discussed separately. (See "Erythroderma in adults".)
Neonatal and infantile erythrodermas are associated with a wide range of cutaneous and systemic disorders, including [1-3]:
●Infectious diseases (eg, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, congenital cutaneous candidiasis, syphilis)
●Inflammatory diseases (eg, atopic dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis)
- Levy ML. Erythrodermas, Immunodeficiency, and Metabolic Disorders. In: Neonatal and Infant Dermatology, 3rd ed, Eichenfield LF, Frieden IJ, Mathes EF, Zaenglein AL (Eds), Elsevier, London 2014. p.265.
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- Infectious diseases
- - Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome
- - Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome
- - Congenital cutaneous candidiasis
- - Syphilis
- - Herpes simplex
- Inflammatory diseases
- - Atopic dermatitis
- - Psoriasis
- - Seborrheic dermatitis
- - Pityriasis rubra pilaris
- - Diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis
- Inherited ichthyoses
- - Nonsyndromic
- - Syndromic
- - Netherton syndrome
- - Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)
- - Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome
- - Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
- - DiGeorge syndrome
- Metabolic disorders
- Drug-induced erythroderma
- PATIENT EVALUATION AND DIAGNOSIS
- Physical examination
- Laboratory tests
- Skin biopsy
- Genetic testing
- Initial management
- Treatment of underlying conditions
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS