Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2017 UpToDate, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in adults

Stephen G Baum, MD
Section Editors
John G Bartlett, MD
Thomas M File, Jr, MD
Deputy Editor
Sheila Bond, MD


Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of three species of Mycoplasma that frequently causes infection in humans. Mycoplasmas are ubiquitous and are the smallest organisms that can survive alone in nature. M. pneumoniae most commonly causes upper respiratory tract infections but can also cause pneumonia. Many extrapulmonary manifestations have been described, although a causal link has not been established for many of these.

The clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of infections, primarily pneumonia, caused by M. pneumoniae in adults will be reviewed here. M. pneumoniae infections in children as well as M. hominis infections are discussed separately. (See "Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in children" and "Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections".)


The term "mycoplasma" is widely used to refer to any organism within the class Mollicutes that is composed of five genera (Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Acholeplasma, Anaeroplasma, and Asteroloplasma). Over 120 named Mycoplasma species exist and 13 Mycoplasma species, two Acholeplasma species, and one Ureaplasma species have been isolated from humans. However, only four species are well-established human pathogens [1]:

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Mycoplasma hominis

To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you:

Subscribers log in here

Literature review current through: Oct 2017. | This topic last updated: Nov 13, 2017.
The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2017 UpToDate, Inc.
  1. Taylor-Robinson D. Infections due to species of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma: an update. Clin Infect Dis 1996; 23:671.
  2. Gillespie SH, Ling CL, Oravcova K, et al. Genomic Investigations unmask Mycoplasma amphoriforme, a new respiratory pathogen. Clin Infect Dis 2015; 60:381.
  3. Baum SG. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and atypical pneumonia. In: Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 7th Ed, Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R (Eds), Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia 2010. p.2481.
  4. Baseman JB, Tully JG. Mycoplasmas: sophisticated, reemerging, and burdened by their notoriety. Emerg Infect Dis 1997; 3:21.
  5. Krause DC, Balish MF. Cellular engineering in a minimal microbe: structure and assembly of the terminal organelle of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Mol Microbiol 2004; 51:917.
  6. Page CA, Krause DC. Protein kinase/phosphatase function correlates with gliding motility in Mycoplasma pneumoniae. J Bacteriol 2013; 195:1750.
  7. Yavlovich A, Tarshis M, Rottem S. Internalization and intracellular survival of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by non-phagocytic cells. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2004; 233:241.
  8. Simmons WL, Daubenspeck JM, Osborne JD, et al. Type 1 and type 2 strains of Mycoplasma pneumoniae form different biofilms. Microbiology 2013; 159:737.
  9. Seya T, Matsumoto M. A lipoprotein family from Mycoplasma fermentans confers host immune activation through Toll-like receptor 2. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2002; 34:901.
  10. Lührmann A, Deiters U, Skokowa J, et al. In vivo effects of a synthetic 2-kilodalton macrophage-activating lipopeptide of Mycoplasma fermentans after pulmonary application. Infect Immun 2002; 70:3785.
  11. Yang J, Hooper WC, Phillips DJ, Talkington DF. Cytokines in Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2004; 15:157.
  12. Chu HW, Campbell JA, Rino JG, et al. Inhaled fluticasone propionate reduces concentration of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, inflammation, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in lungs of mice. J Infect Dis 2004; 189:1119.
  13. Feizi T, Loveless RW. Carbohydrate recognition by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and pathologic consequences. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996; 154:S133.
  14. Baseman JB, Reddy SP, Dallo SF. Interplay between mycoplasma surface proteins, airway cells, and the protean manifestations of mycoplasma-mediated human infections. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996; 154:S137.
  15. Martin RE, Bates JH. Atypical pneumonia. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1991; 5:585.
  16. Luby JP. Pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Clin Chest Med 1991; 12:237.
  17. Kannan TR, Baseman JB. ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating cytotoxin of Mycoplasma pneumoniae represents unique virulence determinant among bacterial pathogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006; 103:6724.
  18. Lluch-Senar M, Cozzuto L, Cano J, et al. Comparative "-omics" in Mycoplasma pneumoniae Clinical Isolates Reveals Key Virulence Factors. PLoS One 2015; 10:e0137354.
  19. Clyde WA Jr. Clinical overview of typical Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. Clin Infect Dis 1993; 17 Suppl 1:S32.
  20. Foy HM, Kenny GE, Cooney MK, Allan ID. Long-term epidemiology of infections with Mycoplasma pneumoniae. J Infect Dis 1979; 139:681.
  21. Gray GC, Witucki PJ, Gould MT, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of oral azithromycin prophylaxis against respiratory infections in a high-risk, young adult population. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 33:983.
  22. Klausner JD, Passaro D, Rosenberg J, et al. Enhanced control of an outbreak of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia with azithromycin prophylaxis. J Infect Dis 1998; 177:161.
  23. Hyde TB, Gilbert M, Schwartz SB, et al. Azithromycin prophylaxis during a hospital outbreak of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. J Infect Dis 2001; 183:907.
  24. Hastings DL, Harrington KJ, Kutty PK, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniae outbreak in a long-term care facility--Nebraska, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2015; 64:296.
  25. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Outbreak of community-acquired pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae--Colorado, 2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2001; 50:227.
  26. Ito I, Ishida T, Osawa M, et al. Culturally verified Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in Japan: a long-term observation from 1979-99. Epidemiol Infect 2001; 127:365.
  27. Dumke R, Schnee C, Pletz MW, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp. infection in community-acquired pneumonia, Germany, 2011-2012. Emerg Infect Dis 2015; 21:426.
  28. Pereyre S, Touati A, Petitjean-Lecherbonnier J, et al. The increased incidence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in France in 2011 was polyclonal, mainly involving M. pneumoniae type 1 strains. Clin Microbiol Infect 2013; 19:E212.
  29. Polkowska A, Harjunpää A, Toikkanen S, et al. Increased incidence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in Finland, 2010-2011. Euro Surveill 2012; 17.
  30. Chalker V, Stocki T, Litt D, et al. Increased detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in children in England and Wales, October 2011 to January 2012. Euro Surveill 2012; 17.
  31. Nir-Paz R, Abutbul A, Moses AE, et al. Ongoing epidemic of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in Jerusalem, Israel, 2010 to 2012. Euro Surveill 2012; 17.
  32. Kim EK, Youn YS, Rhim JW, et al. Epidemiological comparison of three Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia epidemics in a single hospital over 10 years. Korean J Pediatr 2015; 58:172.
  33. Klement E, Talkington DF, Wasserzug O, et al. Identification of risk factors for infection in an outbreak of Mycoplasma pneumoniae respiratory tract disease. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 43:1239.
  34. Bartlett JG, Mundy LM. Community-acquired pneumonia. N Engl J Med 1995; 333:1618.
  35. Hammerschlag MR. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2001; 14:181.
  36. Marrie TJ, Peeling RW, Fine MJ, et al. Ambulatory patients with community-acquired pneumonia: the frequency of atypical agents and clinical course. Am J Med 1996; 101:508.
  37. Marrie TJ. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia requiring hospitalization, with emphasis on infection in the elderly. Arch Intern Med 1993; 153:488.
  38. Falguera M, Sacristán O, Nogués A, et al. Nonsevere community-acquired pneumonia: correlation between cause and severity or comorbidity. Arch Intern Med 2001; 161:1866.
  39. Garbino J, Sommer R, Gerber A, et al. Prospective epidemiologic survey of patients with community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization in Switzerland. Int J Infect Dis 2002; 6:288.
  40. Holter JC, Müller F, Bjørang O, et al. Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia and diagnostic yields of microbiological methods: a 3-year prospective study in Norway. BMC Infect Dis 2015; 15:64.
  41. Johansson N, Kalin M, Tiveljung-Lindell A, et al. Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia: increased microbiological yield with new diagnostic methods. Clin Infect Dis 2010; 50:202.
  42. Lieberman D, Schlaeffer F, Lieberman D, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniae community-acquired pneumonia: a review of 101 hospitalized adult patients. Respiration 1996; 63:261.
  43. Maartens G, Lewis SJ, de Goveia C, et al. 'Atypical' bacteria are a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalised adults. S Afr Med J 1994; 84:678.
  44. Wattanathum A, Chaoprasong C, Nunthapisud P, et al. Community-acquired pneumonia in southeast Asia: the microbial differences between ambulatory and hospitalized patients. Chest 2003; 123:1512.
  45. Jain S, Self WH, Wunderink RG, et al. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization among U.S. Adults. N Engl J Med 2015; 373:415.
  46. Mansel JK, Rosenow EC 3rd, Smith TF, Martin JW Jr. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. Chest 1989; 95:639.
  47. Großhennig S, Ischebeck T, Gibhardt J, et al. Hydrogen sulfide is a novel potential virulence factor of Mycoplasma pneumoniae: characterization of the unusual cysteine desulfurase/desulfhydrase HapE. Mol Microbiol 2016; 100:42.
  48. Tay YK, Huff JC, Weston WL. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is associated with Stevens-Johnson syndrome, not erythema multiforme (von Hebra). J Am Acad Dermatol 1996; 35:757.
  49. Olson D, Watkins LK, Demirjian A, et al. Outbreak of Mycoplasma pneumoniae-Associated Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Pediatrics 2015; 136:e386.
  50. Cherry JD. Anemia and mucocutaneous lesions due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. Clin Infect Dis 1993; 17 Suppl 1:S47.
  51. Koskiniemi M. CNS manifestations associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections: summary of cases at the University of Helsinki and review. Clin Infect Dis 1993; 17 Suppl 1:S52.
  52. Daxboeck F. Mycoplasma pneumoniae central nervous system infections. Curr Opin Neurol 2006; 19:374.
  53. Bitnun A, Ford-Jones E, Blaser S, Richardson S. Mycoplasma pneumoniae ecephalitis. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2003; 14:96.
  54. Smith R, Eviatar L. Neurologic manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections: diverse spectrum of diseases. A report of six cases and review of the literature. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2000; 39:195.
  55. Tsiodras S, Kelesidis T, Kelesidis I, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniae-associated myelitis: a comprehensive review. Eur J Neurol 2006; 13:112.
  56. Meyer Sauteur PM, Jacobs BC, Spuesens EB, et al. Antibody responses to Mycoplasma pneumoniae: role in pathogenesis and diagnosis of encephalitis? PLoS Pathog 2014; 10:e1003983.
  57. Coelho M, Leite A, Revés A, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniae causing nervous system lesion and SIADH in the absence of pneumonia. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2004; 106:129.
  58. Nagashima M, Higaki T, Satoh H, Nakano T. Cardiac thrombus associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2010; 11:849.
  59. Scapini JP, Flynn LP, Sciacaluga S, et al. Confirmed Mycoplasma pneumoniae endocarditis. Emerg Infect Dis 2008; 14:1664.
  60. Chung WS, Hsu WH, Lin CL, Kao CH. Mycoplasma pneumonia increases the risk of acute coronary syndrome: a nationwide population-based cohort study. QJM 2015; 108:697.
  61. Chaudhry R, Nisar N, Malhotra P, et al. Polymerase chain reaction confirmed Mycoplasma pneumoniae arthritis: a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2003; 46:433.
  62. Davis CP, Cochran S, Lisse J, et al. Isolation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae from synovial fluid samples in a patient with pneumonia and polyarthritis. Arch Intern Med 1988; 148:969.
  63. Khan FY, Sayed H. Rhabdomyolysis associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. Hong Kong Med J 2012; 18:247.
  64. Oishi T, Narita M, Ohya H, et al. Rhabdomyolysis associated with antimicrobial drug-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Emerg Infect Dis 2012; 18:849.
  65. Vitullo BB, O'Regan S, de Chadarevian JP, Kaplan BS. Mycoplasma pneumonia associated with acute glomerulonephritis. Nephron 1978; 21:284.
  66. Romero-Gómez M, Otero MA, Sánchez-Muñoz D, et al. Acute hepatitis due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection without lung involvement in adult patients. J Hepatol 2006; 44:827.
  67. Kim KW, Sung JJ, Tchah H, et al. Hepatitis associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in Korean children: a prospective study. Korean J Pediatr 2015; 58:211.
  68. Weinstein O, Shneck M, Levy J, Lifshitz T. Bilateral acute anterior uveitis as a presenting symptom of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Can J Ophthalmol 2006; 41:594.
  69. Yashar SS, Yashar B, Epstein E, Viani RM. Uveitis associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae meningitis. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2001; 79:100.
  70. RIFKIND D, CHANOCK R, KRAVETZ H, et al. Ear involvement (myringitis) and primary atypical pneumonia following inoculation of volunteers with Eaton agent. Am Rev Respir Dis 1962; 85:479.
  71. Roberts DB. The etiology of bullous myringitis and the role of mycoplasmas in ear disease: a review. Pediatrics 1980; 65:761.
  72. Viruses, Mycoplasma, and Chlamydia. In: Imaging of Pulmonary Infections, Muller NL, Franquet, T, Lee KS, Silva CIS (Eds), Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia 2007. p.94.
  73. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 5-1992. A 20-year-old man with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and disseminated intravascular coagulation. N Engl J Med 1992; 326:324.
  74. Braun GS, Wagner KS, Huttner BD, Schmid H. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: usual suspect and unsecured diagnosis in the acute setting. J Emerg Med 2006; 30:371.
  75. Gouriet F, Drancourt M, Raoult D. Multiplexed serology in atypical bacterial pneumonia. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2006; 1078:530.
  76. Cunha BA. The atypical pneumonias: clinical diagnosis and importance. Clin Microbiol Infect 2006; 12 Suppl 3:12.
  77. Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, et al. Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 44 Suppl 2:S27.
  78. Canada Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. Serum IgM and molecular tests for Mycoplasma pneumoniae detection: A review of diagnostic test accuracy, clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and guidelines. CADTH Rapid Response Reports, Ottawa, ON 2015. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0084124/pdf/PubMedHealth_PMH0084124.pdf (Accessed on January 13, 2016).
  79. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) News Release. FDA expands use for FilmArray Respiratory Panel. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm304177.htm (Accessed on June 11, 2012).
  80. Poritz MA, Blaschke AJ, Byington CL, et al. FilmArray, an automated nested multiplex PCR system for multi-pathogen detection: development and application to respiratory tract infection. PLoS One 2011; 6:e26047.
  81. Jacobs E. Serological diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections: a critical review of current procedures. Clin Infect Dis 1993; 17 Suppl 1:S79.
  82. Waites KB, Talkington DF. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and its role as a human pathogen. Clin Microbiol Rev 2004; 17:697.
  83. Daxboeck F, Krause R, Wenisch C. Laboratory diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Clin Microbiol Infect 2003; 9:263.
  84. Nir-Paz R, Michael-Gayego A, Ron M, Block C. Evaluation of eight commercial tests for Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibodies in the absence of acute infection. Clin Microbiol Infect 2006; 12:685.
  85. Beersma MF, Dirven K, van Dam AP, et al. Evaluation of 12 commercial tests and the complement fixation test for Mycoplasma pneumoniae-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies, with PCR used as the "gold standard". J Clin Microbiol 2005; 43:2277.
  86. Marmion BP, Williamson J, Worswick DA, et al. Experience with newer techniques for the laboratory detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection: Adelaide, 1978-1992. Clin Infect Dis 1993; 17 Suppl 1:S90.
  87. Tjhie JH, van Kuppeveld FJ, Roosendaal R, et al. Direct PCR enables detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in patients with respiratory tract infections. J Clin Microbiol 1994; 32:11.
  88. Blackmore TK, Reznikov M, Gordon DL. Clinical utility of the polymerase chain reaction to diagnose Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Pathology 1995; 27:177.
  89. Waring AL, Halse TA, Csiza CK, et al. Development of a genomics-based PCR assay for detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in a large outbreak in New York State. J Clin Microbiol 2001; 39:1385.
  90. Dorigo-Zetsma JW, Verkooyen RP, van Helden HP, et al. Molecular detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in adults with community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization. J Clin Microbiol 2001; 39:1184.
  91. Idaho Technology Inc. FilmArray Respiratory Panel - Information Sheet. http://www.idahotech.com/pdfs/FilmArray/InfoSheet,%20FilmArray%20Respiratory%20Panel-0229.pdf (Accessed on June 11, 2012).
  92. Baron EJ, Miller JM, Weinstein MP, et al. A guide to utilization of the microbiology laboratory for diagnosis of infectious diseases: 2013 recommendations by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). Clin Infect Dis 2013; 57:e22.
  93. Templeton KE, Scheltinga SA, Graffelman AW, et al. Comparison and evaluation of real-time PCR, real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification, conventional PCR, and serology for diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. J Clin Microbiol 2003; 41:4366.
  94. Nilsson AC, Björkman P, Persson K. Polymerase chain reaction is superior to serology for the diagnosis of acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and reveals a high rate of persistent infection. BMC Microbiol 2008; 8:93.
  95. Thurman KA, Walter ND, Schwartz SB, et al. Comparison of laboratory diagnostic procedures for detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in community outbreaks. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 48:1244.
  96. Critchley IA, Jones ME, Heinze PD, et al. In vitro activity of levofloxacin against contemporary clinical isolates of Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae from North America and Europe. Clin Microbiol Infect 2002; 8:214.
  97. Pereyre S, Guyot C, Renaudin H, et al. In vitro selection and characterization of resistance to macrolides and related antibiotics in Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2004; 48:460.
  98. Schönwald S, Gunjaca M, Kolacny-Babić L, et al. Comparison of azithromycin and erythromycin in the treatment of atypical pneumonias. J Antimicrob Chemother 1990; 25 Suppl A:123.
  99. File TM Jr, Segreti J, Dunbar L, et al. A multicenter, randomized study comparing the efficacy and safety of intravenous and/or oral levofloxacin versus ceftriaxone and/or cefuroxime axetil in treatment of adults with community-acquired pneumonia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1997; 41:1965.
  100. Finch R, Schürmann D, Collins O, et al. Randomized controlled trial of sequential intravenous (i.v.) and oral moxifloxacin compared with sequential i.v. and oral co-amoxiclav with or without clarithromycin in patients with community-acquired pneumonia requiring initial parenteral treatment. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002; 46:1746.
  101. Holzman RS and Simberkoff MS. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Atypical Pneumonia. In: Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 8, Bennett JE, Dolin R and Blaser MJ (Eds), Elsevier, Inc, Philadelphia 2015. p.2183.
  102. Kawai Y, Miyashita N, Kubo M, et al. Nationwide surveillance of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in pediatric patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2013; 57:4046.
  103. Zhao F, Lv M, Tao X, et al. Antibiotic sensitivity of 40 Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates and molecular analysis of macrolide-resistant isolates from Beijing, China. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2012; 56:1108.
  104. Peuchant O, Ménard A, Renaudin H, et al. Increased macrolide resistance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in France directly detected in clinical specimens by real-time PCR and melting curve analysis. J Antimicrob Chemother 2009; 64:52.
  105. Wolff BJ, Thacker WL, Schwartz SB, Winchell JM. Detection of macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae by real-time PCR and high-resolution melt analysis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008; 52:3542.
  106. Diaz MH, Benitez AJ, Winchell JM. Investigations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in the United States: trends in molecular typing and macrolide resistance from 2006 to 2013. J Clin Microbiol 2015; 53:124.
  107. Zheng X, Lee S, Selvarangan R, et al. Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae, United States. Emerg Infect Dis 2015; 21:1470.
  108. Gücüyener K, Simşek F, Yilmaz O, Serdaroğlu A. Methyl-prednisolone in neurologic complications of Mycoplasma pneumonia. Indian J Pediatr 2000; 67:467.
  109. Linchevski I, Klement E, Nir-Paz R. Mycoplasma pneumoniae vaccine protective efficacy and adverse reactions--Systematic review and meta-analysis. Vaccine 2009; 27:2437.
  110. Siegel JD, Rhinehart E, Jackson M, Chiarello L. Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee 2007 guideline for isolation precautions: Preventing transmission of infectious agents in healthcare settings, June 2007. http://www.cdc.gov/hicpac/2007IP/2007isolationPrecautions.html (Accessed on November 26, 2008).
  111. Chan ED, Welsh CH. Fulminant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. West J Med 1995; 162:133.
  112. Kannan TR, Hardy RD, Coalson JJ, et al. Fatal outcomes in family transmission of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Clin Infect Dis 2012; 54:225.