Minor Vibrio and Vibrio-like species associated with human disease
- J Glenn Morris, Jr, MD, MPHTM
J Glenn Morris, Jr, MD, MPHTM
- Professor of Medicine
- Director, Emerging Pathogens Institute
- University of Florida
Vibrios are ubiquitous environmental Gram-negative rods, with well over 100 species currently recognized. Among these species, 10 have been isolated from humans. The species responsible for the most serious diseases are Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae O1/O139 strains causing the disease cholera and other V. cholerae strains linked with diarrhea, wound infections, and septicemia), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus.
Four additional species (Vibrio mimicus, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio furnissii, Vibrio alginolyticus) clearly have pathogenic potential for humans but cause illness that generally is less severe. Two closely related species that were originally classified in the genus Vibrio but have undergone a change in name on the basis of recent taxonomic studies, Grimontia hollisae (formerly Vibrio hollisae) , and Photobacterium damsela (formerly Vibrio damsela) , are also established human pathogens. Three species (Vibrio metschnikovii, Vibrio cincinnatiensis, and Vibrio carchariae [3-7]) have primarily been the subject of case reports, and their significance as human pathogens remains to be determined. A new species, Vibrio metoecus, within the V. cholerae-V. mimicus clade, has been identified in stool and blood samples from patients; its role as a human pathogen is uncertain .
This topic discusses the microbiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of the six minor Vibrio and Vibrio-like species that have been associated with human disease. Infections due to the major Vibrio species are discussed elsewhere. (See "Overview of cholera" and "Infections due to non-O1/O139 Vibrio cholerae" and "Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections" and "Vibrio vulnificus infections".)
EPIDEMIOLOGY COMMON TO VIBRIO SPECIES
All Vibrio species are free-living microorganisms in marine and estuarine environments. They are sensitive to temperature, with numbers of microorganisms in the environment increasing during warmer, summer months . The number of Vibrio species isolated from human infections in the United States and reported to the Center for Disease Control clearly increases during the months of May to September, with 40 to 47 percent of cases occurring in July and August .
Vibrio species are associated mainly with gastroenteritis, wound infection, and occasionally bacteremia. V. mimicus, V. fluvialis, V. furnissii, and G. hollisae primarily cause gastroenteritis. V. alginolyticus and P. damsela primarily cause wound infections. The frequency and complications of these infections vary by species (table 1) . In the United States, the numbers of cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and identified through CDC’s FoodNet surveillance system have shown a steady increase over the past two decades ; this increase is reflected in data for V. alginolyticus for 1996 to 2010 (figure 1).
- Thompson FL, Hoste B, Vandemeulebroecke K, Swings J. Reclassification of Vibrio hollisae as Grimontia hollisae gen. nov., comb. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2003; 53:1615.
- Smith SK, Sutton DC, Fuerst JA, Reichelt JL. Evaluation of the genus Listonella and reassignment of Listonella damsela (Love et al.) MacDonell and Colwell to the genus Photobacterium as Photobacterium damsela comb. nov. with an emended description. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1991; 41:529.
- Bode RB, Brayton PR, Colwell RR, et al. A new Vibrio species, Vibrio cincinnatiensis, causing meningitis: successful treatment in an adult. Ann Intern Med 1986; 104:55.
- Pavia AT, Bryan JA, Maher KL, et al. Vibrio carchariae infection after a shark bite. Ann Intern Med 1989; 111:85.
- Jean-Jacques W, Rajashekaraiah KR, Farmer JJ 3rd, et al. Vibrio metschnikovii bacteremia in a patient with cholecystitis. J Clin Microbiol 1981; 14:711.
- Farmer JJ 3rd, Hickman-Brenner FW, Fanning GR, et al. Characterization of Vibrio metschnikovii and Vibrio gazogenes by DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotype. J Clin Microbiol 1988; 26:1993.
- Dalsgaard A, Alarcon A, Lanata CF, et al. Clinical manifestations and molecular epidemiology of five cases of diarrhoea in children associated with Vibrio metschnikovii in Arequipa, Peru. J Med Microbiol 1996; 45:494.
- Kirchberger PC, Turnsek M, Hunt DE, et al. Vibrio metoecus sp. nov., a close relative of Vibrio cholerae isolated from coastal brackish ponds and clinical specimens. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2014; 64:3208.
- Weis KE, Hammond RM, Hutchinson R, Blackmore CG. Vibrio illness in Florida, 1998-2007. Epidemiol Infect 2011; 139:591.
- Newton A, Kendall M, Vugia DJ, et al. Increasing rates of vibriosis in the United States, 1996-2010: review of surveillance data from 2 systems. Clin Infect Dis 2012; 54 Suppl 5:S391.
- CDC. National Enteric Disease Surveillance: COVIS Annual Summary, 2012. http://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/dfwed/pdfs/covis-annual-report-2012-508c.pdf.
- Davis BR, Fanning GR, Madden JM, et al. Characterization of biochemically atypical Vibrio cholerae strains and designation of a new pathogenic species, Vibrio mimicus. J Clin Microbiol 1981; 14:631.
- Hasan NA, Grim CJ, Haley BJ, et al. Comparative genomics of clinical and environmental Vibrio mimicus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010; 107:21134.
- Chowdhury MA, Aziz KM, Kay BA, Rahim Z. Toxin production by Vibrio mimicus strains isolated from human and environmental sources in Bangladesh. J Clin Microbiol 1987; 25:2200.
- Tercero-Alburo JJ, González-Márquez H, Bonilla-González E, et al. Identification of capsule, biofilm, lateral flagellum, and type IV pili in Vibrio mimicus strains. Microb Pathog 2014; 76:77.
- Okada N, Matsuda S, Matsuyama J, et al. Presence of genes for type III secretion system 2 in Vibrio mimicus strains. BMC Microbiol 2010; 10:302.
- Elhadi N, Radu S, Chen CH, Nishibuchi M. Prevalence of potentially pathogenic Vibrio species in the seafood marketed in Malaysia. J Food Prot 2004; 67:1469.
- Maugeri TL, Caccamo D, Gugliandolo C. Potentially pathogenic vibrios in brackish waters and mussels. J Appl Microbiol 2000; 89:261.
- Shandera WX, Johnston JM, Davis BR, Blake PA. Disease from infection with Vibrio mimicus, a newly recognized Vibrio species. Clinical characteristics and edipemiology. Ann Intern Med 1983; 99:169.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Notes from the field: Vibrio mimicus infection from consuming crayfish --- Spokane, Washington, June 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2010; 59:1374.
- Chitov T, Kirikaew P, Yungyune P, et al. An incidence of large foodborne outbreak associated with Vibrio mimicus. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2009; 28:421.
- Campos E, Bolaños H, Acuña MT, et al. Vibrio mimicus diarrhea following ingestion of raw turtle eggs. Appl Environ Microbiol 1996; 62:1141.
- Lee JV, Shread P, Furniss AL, Bryant TN. Taxonomy and description of Vibrio fluvialis sp. nov. (synonym group F vibrios, group EF6). J Appl Bacteriol 1981; 50:73.
- Chakraborty R, Chakraborty S, De K, et al. Cytotoxic and cell vacuolating activity of Vibrio fluvialis isolated from paediatric patients with diarrhoea. J Med Microbiol 2005; 54:707.
- Lockwood DE, Kreger AS, Richardson SH. Detection of toxins produced by vibrio fluvialis. Infect Immun 1982; 35:702.
- Seidler RJ, Allen DA, Colwell RR, et al. Biochemical characteristics and virulence of environmental group F bacteria isolated in the United States. Appl Environ Microbiol 1980; 40:715.
- Huq MI, Alam AK, Brenner DJ, Morris GK. Isolation of Vibrio-like group, EF-6, from patients with diarrhea. J Clin Microbiol 1980; 11:621.
- Lu X, Liang W, Wang Y, et al. Identification of genetic bases of vibrio fluvialis species-specific biochemical pathways and potential virulence factors by comparative genomic analysis. Appl Environ Microbiol 2014; 80:2029.
- Yücel N, Balci S. Prevalence of listeria, Aeromonas, and Vibrio species in fish used for human consumption in Turkey. J Food Prot 2010; 73:380.
- Tall BD, Fall S, Pereira MR, et al. Characterization of Vibrio fluvialis-like strains implicated in limp lobster disease. Appl Environ Microbiol 2003; 69:7435.
- Bhattacharjee S, Bhattacharjee S, Bal B, et al. Is Vibrio fluvialis emerging as a pathogen with epidemic potential in coastal region of eastern India following cyclone Aila? J Health Popul Nutr 2010; 28:311.
- Chowdhury G, Pazhani GP, Dutta D, et al. Vibrio fluvialis in patients with diarrhea, Kolkata, India. Emerg Infect Dis 2012; 18:1868.
- Lesmana M, Subekti DS, Tjaniadi P, et al. Spectrum of vibrio species associated with acute diarrhea in North Jakarta, Indonesia. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2002; 43:91.
- Lux TM, Lee R, Love J. Complete genome sequence of a free-living Vibrio furnissii sp. nov. strain (NCTC 11218). J Bacteriol 2011; 193:1487.
- Matté GR, Matté MH, Sato MI, et al. Potentially pathogenic vibrios associated with mussels from a tropical region on the Atlantic coast of Brazil. J Appl Bacteriol 1994; 77:281.
- Centers for Disease Control. Follow-up of outbreak of gastroenteritis during a tour of the orient – Alaska. MMWR Morbid Mortal Wkly Rep 1969; 18:1294.
- Dalsgaard A, Glerup P, Høybye LL, et al. Vibrio furnissii isolated from humans in Peru: a possible human pathogen? Epidemiol Infect 1997; 119:143.
- Derber C, Coudron P, Tarr C, et al. Vibrio furnissii: an unusual cause of bacteremia and skin lesions after ingestion of seafood. J Clin Microbiol 2011; 49:2348.
- Nordstrom JL, Vickery MC, Blackstone GM, et al. Development of a multiplex real-time PCR assay with an internal amplification control for the detection of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus bacteria in oysters. Appl Environ Microbiol 2007; 73:5840.
- Lin YR, Chen YL, Wang KB, et al. The thermostable direct hemolysin from Grimontia hollisae causes acute hepatotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. PLoS One 2013; 8:e56226.
- Myatt DC, Davis GH. Isolation of medically significant Vibrio species from riverine sources in south east Queensland. Microbios 1989; 60:111.
- Cavallo RA, Stabili L. Presence of vibrios in seawater and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.) from the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea). Water Res 2002; 36:3719.
- Edouard S, Daumas A, Branger S, et al. Grimontia hollisae, a potential agent of gastroenteritis and bacteraemia in the Mediterranean area. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2009; 28:705.
- Morris JG Jr, Miller HG, Wilson R, et al. Illness caused by Vibrio damsela and Vibrio hollisae. Lancet 1982; 1:1294.
- Hinestrosa F, Madeira RG, Bourbeau PP. Severe gastroenteritis and hypovolemic shock caused by Grimontia (Vibrio) hollisae infection. J Clin Microbiol 2007; 45:3462.
- Yishan L, Jiaming F, Zaohe W, Jichang J. Genotype analysis of collagenase gene by PCR-SSCP in Vibrio alginolyticus and its association with virulence to marine fish. Curr Microbiol 2011; 62:1697.
- Zhao Z, Chen C, Hu CQ, et al. The type III secretion system of Vibrio alginolyticus induces rapid apoptosis, cell rounding and osmotic lysis of fish cells. Microbiology 2010; 156:2864.
- Masini L, De Grandis G, Principi F, et al. Research and characterization of pathogenic vibrios from bathing water along the Conero Riviera (Central Italy). Water Res 2007; 41:4031.
- Schets FM, van den Berg HH, Demeulmeester AA, et al. Vibrio alginolyticus infections in the Netherlands after swimming in the North Sea. Euro Surveill 2006; 11:E061109.3.
- Schets FM, van den Berg HH, Rutjes SA, de Roda Husman AM. Pathogenic Vibrio species in dutch shellfish destined for direct human consumption. J Food Prot 2010; 73:734.
- Blake PA, Weaver RE, Hollis DG. Diseases of humans (other than cholera) caused by vibrios. Annu Rev Microbiol 1980; 34:341.
- Bonner JR, Coker AS, Berryman CR, Pollock HM. Spectrum of Vibrio infections in a Gulf Coast community. Ann Intern Med 1983; 99:464.
- Prociv P. Vibrio alginolyticus in Western Australia. Med J Aust 1978; 2:296.
- Hong GL, Dai XQ, Lu CJ, et al. Temporizing surgical management improves outcome in patients with Vibrio necrotizing fasciitis complicated with septic shock on admission. Burns 2014; 40:446.
- Love M, Teebken-Fisher D, Hose JE, et al. Vibrio damsela, a Marine Bacterium, Causes Skin Ulcers on the Damselfish Chromis punctipinnis. Science 1981; 214:1139.
- Kreger AS. Cytolytic activity and virulence of Vibrio damsela. Infect Immun 1984; 44:326.
- Goodell KH, Jordan MR, Graham R, et al. Rapidly advancing necrotizing fasciitis caused by Photobacterium (Vibrio) damsela: a hyperaggressive variant. Crit Care Med 2004; 32:278.
- EPIDEMIOLOGY COMMON TO VIBRIO SPECIES
- SPECIES THAT PRIMARILY CAUSE DIARRHEA
- V. mimicus
- - Epidemiology
- - Clinical manifestations
- V. fluvialis
- - Epidemiology
- - Clinical manifestations
- V. furnissii
- Grimontia hollisae
- SPECIES THAT PRIMARILY CAUSE WOUND INFECTIONS
- V. alginolyticus
- Photobacterium damsela
- Diarrheal disease
- Wound infection
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS