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Meniere disease

Authors
Howard S Moskowitz, MD, PhD
Elizabeth A Dinces, MD
Section Editor
Daniel G Deschler, MD, FACS
Deputy Editor
Janet L Wilterdink, MD

INTRODUCTION

Meniere disease is a condition that is thought to arise from abnormal fluid and ion homeostasis in the inner ear. The disease is named for Prospere Meniere, a French physician who first reported that the inner ear could be the source of a syndrome manifesting episodic vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss [1].

The classic pathologic lesion of Meniere disease is termed endolymphatic hydrops. This lesion can be definitively diagnosed only by postmortem histopathologic analysis of the temporal bone. However, hydrops has also been identified in postmortem examination of temporal bones where there was no history of Meniere symptoms.

Meniere disease refers to presentation of the typical set of symptoms with an idiopathic etiology. The symptomatic triad may also occur secondary to other inner ear disorders, in which case it is termed Meniere syndrome. The symptom triad may be a final common pathway of many different inner ear insults.

This topic will present an overview of the diagnosis and treatment of Meniere disease. More detailed topics addressing the differential diagnosis of vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss are presented separately. (See "Evaluation of the patient with vertigo" and "Pathophysiology, etiology, and differential diagnosis of vertigo" and "Etiology of hearing loss in adults" and "Sudden sensorineural hearing loss" and "Etiology and diagnosis of tinnitus".)

EPIDEMIOLOGY

Meniere disease can begin at any age but patients typically present with symptoms between the ages of 20 and 40. Meniere syndrome in children is most often associated with congenital malformations of the inner ear [2,3].

                            

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Literature review current through: Nov 2016. | This topic last updated: Tue Mar 22 00:00:00 GMT+00:00 2016.
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