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Medical management of cyanotic congenital heart disease in adults

Author
Heidi M Connolly, MD, FASE
Section Editor
John K Triedman, MD
Deputy Editor
Susan B Yeon, MD, JD, FACC

INTRODUCTION

Centers specialized in the management of adult patients with congenital heart disease provide the optimal combination of clinical expertise, facilities for advanced diagnosis and therapy, structured care, and access to new and evolving therapies. The 2008 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) adult congenital heart disease guidelines recommended that all adults with congenital heart disease of moderate or great complexity (including those with cyanotic heart disease) should undergo initial evaluation and longitudinal coordination of care by such a specialized center [1].

Cyanosis is caused by right to left intracardiac or extracardiac shunts. In adults, the most common causes of cyanotic congenital heart disease are Eisenmenger syndrome and palliated complex congenital heart disease (eg, tetralogy of Fallot). (See "Evaluation and prognosis of Eisenmenger syndrome" and "Pathophysiology, clinical features, and diagnosis of tetralogy of Fallot".)

Medical management of adult patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease is discussed here. Management of Eisenmenger syndrome patients includes following recommendations pertinent to all patients to cyanotic heart disease as well as other recommendations specific to Eisenmenger syndrome and pulmonary hypertension in congenital heart disease. These later recommendations are discussed separately. (See "Medical management of Eisenmenger syndrome" and "Pulmonary hypertension in adults with congenital heart disease".)

MANAGEMENT OF CYANOTIC CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE

Adult patients with cyanotic heart disease should be seen at least annually at a specialty center for adult congenital heart disease patients [1].

Prevention of endocarditis — Patients should maintain good oral hygiene. Oral and other bacterial infections should be treated promptly. Antimicrobial prophylaxis for bacterial endocarditis is recommended for all patients with unrepaired cyanotic congenital heart disease [1,2]. (See "Antimicrobial prophylaxis for bacterial endocarditis".)

                

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Literature review current through: Nov 2016. | This topic last updated: Mon Jun 27 00:00:00 GMT+00:00 2016.
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