Medline ® Abstract for Reference 19
of 'Mechanism of action of diuretics'
Clarification of the site of action of chlorothiazide in the rat nephron.
Kunau RT Jr, Weller DR, Webb HL
J Clin Invest. 1975;56(2):401.
The saluretic effect of the thiazide diuretics has been attributed to inhibition of sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron of the kidney. Recent micropuncture studies have shown, however, that chlorothiazide administration can also inhibit sodium reabsorption in the proximal convolution. To clarify the site of the saluretic effect of chlorothiazide, these micropuncture studies examined the effect of chlorothiazide on chloride transport in the nephron. The effect of chlorothiazide on chloride transport was studied because chlorothiazide's effectiveness as a saluretic is largely due to its ability to enhance sodium chloride excretion; if only changes in sodium transport are examined, it would be then difficult to determine if sodium as bicarbonate or as chloride is affected, since chlorothiazide can inhibit carbonic anhydrase. One group of rats was studied before and after 15 mg/kg per h chlorothiazide. For comparison, another group of rats was studied before and after 2 mg/kg per h benzolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Fractional chloride delivery from the proximal tubule was similarly increased in both groups from 59.4 to 71.0% by chlorothiazide administration, Pless than 0.0001, and from 54.3 to 68.2% by benzolamide administration, P less than 0.001. The increased delivery very of chloride from the proximal tubule was largely reabsorbed before the early distal tubule as fractional chloride delivery to this site increased only from 5.08 to 7.40% after chlorothiazide administration, P less than 0.001, and from 4.50 to 6.29% after benzolamide administration, P less than 0.01. Benzolamide had no effect on chloride reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule. However, chlorothiazide administration resulted in a marked decrease in distal tubular chloride reabsorption, the fraction of filtered chloride present at the late distal tubule incresing from 1.24 to 6.25%, P less than 0.001. Fractional chloride excretion in the urine increased from 0.29 to 3.44%, P less than 0.001, after chlorothiazide, but did not change after benzolamide. The influence of chlorothiazide on proximal chloride transport presumably is related to its ability to inhibit renal carbonic anhydrase. However, it is not the effect of chlorothiazide in the proximal convolution but rather its effect in the distal convoluted tubule which is primarily responsible for its ability to be an effective saliuretic.