BREASTFEEDING AND HEALTH OVERVIEW
Women have an amazing ability to produce a sufficient quantity and quality of breast milk to support an infant, even if the woman is undernourished. However, breastfeeding women do need an increased number of calories and nutrients to maintain their milk supply.
In most cases, the best way to get an adequate number of calories and nutrients is to eat a healthy, well-balanced diet that includes fruits, vegetables, protein, grains, and a limited amount of fat, sometimes with a multivitamin supplement. The components of a healthy diet are discussed in depth in a separate topic review. (See "Patient information: Diet and health (Beyond the Basics)".)
This topic review discusses the nutritional needs of women who are breastfeeding, including recommendations for calorie intake, vitamin and mineral supplements, fluid recommendations, and guidelines for weight loss while breastfeeding. Foods, drinks, and medications that should be limited or avoided are also discussed.
Topic reviews about the basics of breastfeeding and common breastfeeding problems are also available. This topic discusses how to prepare to breastfeed, including the benefits of breastfeeding. Additional breastfeeding topics are available separately. (See "Patient information: Common breastfeeding problems (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient information: Breastfeeding guide (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient information: Deciding to breastfeed (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient information: Breast pumps (Beyond the Basics)".)
NUTRITION AND BREASTFEEDING
Calorie recommendations — The total number of calories a woman needs depends upon the following factors:
- Activity level
For example, a 25-year-old woman who is not breastfeeding and is 5 feet, 5 inches tall and 140 pounds and is not active needs approximately 2190 calories per day. A woman who is older, shorter, who weighs less or who is less active would need fewer calories per day while a woman who is taller, younger, weighs more, or is more active would need more calories per day.
The energy and nutritional requirements of women who breastfeed are greater than those of women who are not breastfeeding. Thus, women who breastfeed exclusively usually need an additional 400 to 500 calories per day to support their milk production. Using the woman in the above example, the recommended total calorie intake would be approximately 2690 calories per day.
Fluid intake — The average woman who breastfeeds exclusively produces 750 to 800 mL (approximately 25 ounces) of breast milk per day. Many women wonder how much extra fluid they should drink given this relatively large loss of fluid. It is generally sufficient for a woman to drink when she is thirsty and to watch for early signs that she is not getting enough fluids (eg, dark-colored urine, infrequent urination, dry mouth). To encourage an adequate fluid intake, some clinicians recommend keeping a cup of water or another non-caffeinated beverage nearby while nursing or working.
WEIGHT LOSS AND BREASTFEEDING
Following pregnancy, most women lose weight gained during pregnancy gradually. Losing a moderate amount of weight by eating less and/or exercising does not usually affect a woman's ability to produce an adequate amount of breast milk.
VITAMIN AND MINERAL REQUIREMENTS WHILE BREASTFEEDING
Women who are healthy and eat a well-balanced diet that includes meat and fish do not usually need to take a vitamin supplement while breastfeeding. However, all women, including those who breastfeed, should ensure that they consume an adequate amount of calcium and vitamin D (see 'Calcium' below).
Vegans — Women who are healthy but who do NOT eat meat, chicken, fish, or dairy products need to take a vitamin supplement that contains vitamin B12. Most commercially available multivitamins contain an adequate dose of B12.
Calcium — Pregnancy and breastfeeding cause a temporary decrease in bone mass. This loss cannot be prevented by consuming additional calcium during pregnancy or while breastfeeding. However, lost bone is usually regained after a woman stops breastfeeding. All adult women should consume a daily minimum of 1000 mg of calcium; adolescents should consume 1300 mg of calcium per day.
The primary sources of calcium in the diet are milk and other dairy products, such as hard cheese, cottage cheese, or yogurt, as well as green vegetables, such as spinach (table 1). If it is not possible to consume enough milk or other foods that contain calcium, it is reasonable to take a calcium supplement (table 2). (See "Patient information: Calcium and vitamin D for bone health (Beyond the Basics)".)
Vitamin D — Absorption of calcium depends upon having an adequate level of vitamin D. Both breastfeeding and nonbreastfeeding women require an estimated 600 IU per day of vitamin D. Milk is the best source of dietary vitamin D, with approximately 100 IU per cup. A vitamin D or calcium plus vitamin D supplement are also good sources of vitamin D. (See "Patient information: Calcium and vitamin D for bone health (Beyond the Basics)".)
Iron — Women who are not anemic after delivery and who breastfeed exclusively do not usually have a menstrual period for the first four to six months. Thus, there is little iron lost in menstrual blood. An iron supplement is not usually needed during this time.
Women who are anemic after delivery usually require an iron supplement; this may include an over-the-counter or prescription iron supplement. The recommended type and dose of iron should be discussed with a healthcare provider. (See "Patient information: Anemia caused by low iron (Beyond the Basics)".)
FOODS TO LIMIT OR AVOID WHILE BREASTFEEDING
Some foods and drinks should be avoided or consumed in limited quantities while breastfeeding.
Fish — Nearly all fish and shellfish contain traces of mercury. For most people, the risk from mercury by eating fish and shellfish is not a health concern. Consumption of certain fish and shellfish by breastfeeding women may pose an increased risk to the breastfed infant's developing nervous system, since both inorganic and organic mercury are transferred from maternal serum to human milk. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommend that pregnant and breastfeeding women should [1,2]:
- Avoid eating any shark, swordfish, king mackerel, or tilefish. These fish have high levels of mercury.
- Breastfeeding mothers can eat up to 12 ounces a week (2 average servings) of fish and shellfish that have lower concentrations of mercury. This includes shrimp, canned light tuna, salmon, pollock, and catfish. Albacore (white) tuna has more mercury than canned light tuna, and should be limited to 6 ounces (one average meal) per week.
- Check local advisories about the safety of fish caught by family and friends in local lakes, rivers, and coastal areas (www.epa.gov/waterscience/fish/). If no advice is available, breastfeeding mothers may eat up to 6 ounces (one average meal) per week of fish caught from local waters, but do not consume any other fish during that week.
Foodborne infection — Some foods, such as deli meats, soft cheeses, refrigerated meat spreads, and other items are not recommended during pregnancy due to the risk of ingesting bacteria known as listeria. Listeria can cause a mild illness in adults and a serious or life-threatening infection in infants who are infected during pregnancy. However, women who are breastfeeding do not need to avoid or limit these foods; listeria cannot be passed through breast milk.
MEDICATION SAFETY WITH BREASTFEEDING
Most medications taken by mothers during breastfeeding are safe for their infant. However, there are exceptions. For this reason, it is best to consult with a healthcare provider, lactation consultant, or pharmacist if there is any question of a medication's safety while breastfeeding . It is important to be aware that the quality of information regarding medication safety in breastfeeding varies . A reliable source of up-to-date information is LactMed, which is available from the National Library of Medicine (http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?LACT).
Some medications are safe but can potentially affect the amount of breast milk produced. For example, combined estrogen/progesterone birth control pills may decrease the amount of milk a woman produces. For this reason, women who are breastfeeding are discouraged from using combination birth control pills. Progesterone-only birth control pills, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and injections are less likely to affect milk supply, although early placement of progesterone-containing IUDs has been reported to decrease breastfeeding duration . As a result, nonhormonal birth control methods are preferred as the first line of contraceptive therapy for breastfeeding mothers (See "Patient information: Hormonal methods of birth control (Beyond the Basics)".)
Over-the-counter decongestants that contain pseudoephedrine (Sudafed) can also decrease milk supply .
Medications to avoid while breastfeeding — Some medications are known to be harmful to infants and should be avoided by women who breastfeed if possible. Illegal drugs such as amphetamines, cocaine, phencyclidine (PCP), and heroin are not safe for a woman or her baby; women who use these drugs are advised to not breastfeed. There are limited data on the effects of marijuana in infants; we advise women who breastfeed to avoid use of marijuana.
Alcohol — When a breastfeeding woman consumes alcohol, a small percentage of alcohol is transferred into her breast milk. The amount of alcohol considered to be "safe" while breastfeeding is controversial. A number of factors affect how much alcohol is transferred to breast milk and how much an infant absorbs.
For an average-weight woman, it takes about two hours for a single serving of alcohol to clear completely from her body. One serving of alcohol is 12 ounces of beer, five ounces of wine, or 1.5 ounces of 80-proof liquor. To completely avoid any alcohol being transferred to the infant, experts recommend that a woman wait two hours after consuming a single serving of alcohol. If a woman drinks more than this amount, she should refrain from breastfeeding for an additional two hours for each serving of alcohol .
Other sources have suggested that women should drink no more than one serving of alcohol while breastfeeding [4,7]. It is not necessary to discard breast milk (eg, "pump and dump") after consuming alcohol because the alcohol will leave the mother's milk as the body clears it over a few hours.
Caffeine — Most breastfeeding women can drink a moderate amount caffeine without it affecting their infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics defines a moderate intake of caffeine as two to three cups of a caffeinated beverage per day . However, some young infants are sensitive to caffeine and become irritable or have difficulty sleeping, even with small amounts of caffeine. An infant's sensitivity to caffeine usually lessens over time.
Tobacco — Infants of parents who smoke have an increased risk of a number of conditions, including asthma, pneumonia, ear infections, bronchitis, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), among others. These risks exist among infants who live with smokers, even if the mother breastfeeds. Cutting down or stopping smoking can decrease these risks. However, women who smoke are still encouraged to breastfeed. (See "Patient information: Quitting smoking (Beyond the Basics)".)
WHERE TO GET MORE INFORMATION
Your healthcare provider is the best source of information for questions and concerns related to your medical problem.
This article will be updated as needed on our web site (www.uptodate.com/patients). Related topics for patients, as well as selected articles written for healthcare professionals, are also available. Some of the most relevant are listed below.
Patient level information — UpToDate offers two types of patient education materials.
The Basics — The Basics patient education pieces answer the four or five key questions a patient might have about a given condition. These articles are best for patients who want a general overview and who prefer short, easy-to-read materials.
Patient information: Health and nutrition for women who breastfeed (The Basics)
Patient information: Nutrition before and during pregnancy (The Basics)
Patient information: Breastfeeding (The Basics)
Patient information: Common breastfeeding problems (The Basics)
Patient information: Vitamin B12 deficiency and folate (folic acid) deficiency (The Basics)
Patient information: Vitamin supplements (The Basics)
Beyond the Basics — Beyond the Basics patient education pieces are longer, more sophisticated, and more detailed. These articles are best for patients who want in-depth information and are comfortable with some medical jargon.
Patient information: Diet and health (Beyond the Basics)
Patient information: Common breastfeeding problems (Beyond the Basics)
Patient information: Breastfeeding guide (Beyond the Basics)
Patient information: Deciding to breastfeed (Beyond the Basics)
Patient information: Breast pumps (Beyond the Basics)
Patient information: Calcium and vitamin D for bone health (Beyond the Basics)
Patient information: Anemia caused by low iron (Beyond the Basics)
Patient information: Hormonal methods of birth control (Beyond the Basics)
Patient information: Quitting smoking (Beyond the Basics)
Professional level information — Professional level articles are designed to keep doctors and other health professionals up-to-date on the latest medical findings. These articles are thorough, long, and complex, and they contain multiple references to the research on which they are based. Professional level articles are best for people who are comfortable with a lot of medical terminology and who want to read the same materials their doctors are reading.
Breastfeeding: Parental education and support
Common problems of breastfeeding and weaning
Maternal nutrition during lactation
Nutrition in pregnancy
Nutritional composition of human milk for full-term infants
Principles of medication use during lactation
The impact of breastfeeding on the development of allergic disease
Use of psychotropic medications in breastfeeding women
Treatment, prognosis, and prevention of Listeria monocytogenes infection
Prevention of HIV transmission during breastfeeding in resource-limited settings
The following organizations also provide reliable health information.
- The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
- International Lactation Consultant Association