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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 95

of 'Management of patients at high risk for breast and ovarian cancer'

Biallelic mutations in BRCA1 cause a new Fanconi anemia subtype.
Sawyer SL, Tian L, Kähkönen M, Schwartzentruber J, Kircher M, University of Washington Centre for Mendelian Genomics, FORGE Canada Consortium, Majewski J, Dyment DA, Innes AM, Boycott KM, Moreau LA, Moilanen JS, Greenberg RA
Cancer Discov. 2015 Feb;5(2):135-42. Epub 2014 Dec 3.
UNLABELLED: Deficiency in BRCA-dependent DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair is intimately connected to breast cancer susceptibility and to the rare developmental syndrome Fanconi anemia. Bona fide Fanconi anemia proteins, BRCA2 (FANCD1), PALB2 (FANCN), and BRIP1 (FANCJ), interact with BRCA1 during ICL repair. However, the lack of detailed phenotypic and cellular characterization of a patient with biallelic BRCA1 mutations has precluded assignment of BRCA1 as a definitive Fanconi anemia susceptibility gene. Here, we report the presence of biallelic BRCA1 mutations in a woman with multiple congenital anomalies consistent with a Fanconi anemia-like disorder and breast cancer at age 23. Patient cells exhibited deficiency in BRCA1 and RAD51 localization to DNA-damage sites, combined with radial chromosome formation and hypersensitivity to ICL-inducing agents. Restoration of these functions was achieved by ectopic introduction of a BRCA1 transgene. These observations provide evidence in support of BRCA1 as a new Fanconi anemia gene (FANCS).
SIGNIFICANCE: We establish that biallelic BRCA1 mutations cause a distinct FA-S, which has implications for risk counselling in families where both parents harbor BRCA1 mutations. The genetic basis of hereditary cancer susceptibility syndromes provides diagnostic information, insights into treatment strategies, and more accurate recurrence risk counseling to families.
Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.