Medline ® Abstract for Reference 81
of 'Management of bladder dysfunction in children'
The outcome of voiding dysfunction managed with clean intermittent catheterization in neurologically and anatomically normal children.
Pohl HG, Bauer SB, Borer JG, Diamond DA, Kelly MD, Grant R, Briscoe CJ, Doonan G, Retik AB
BJU Int. 2002;89(9):923.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the tolerability and efficacy of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) in the management of dysfunctional voiding in patients who are neurologically and anatomically normal.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The medical records were reviewed in 23 patients (16 girls, mean age 9 years, range 6-14.5, and seven males, mean age 8 years, range 5-20.5) with urinary incontinence and/or urinary tract infection (UTI) who were offered CIC because they had a large postvoid residual urine volume (PVR). All had extensive instruction before starting CIC. All patients underwent urodynamic studies, and urinary and fecal elimination habits were recorded. Detrusor hyperactivity, when present, was treated with anticholinergic medication. The follow-up evaluation included tolerance of CIC, continence status and the incidence of UTI. Behavioural modification or biofeedback training was not used in any patient.
RESULTS: Of the 23 patients, 13 presented with both UTI and urinary incontinence, five with incontinence only, four with UTI only, one with frequency and no incontinence, and one with haematuria. Associated symptoms included frequency/urgency, constipation or soiling, and straining to void or incomplete emptying (in nine each), and infrequent voiding in six. CIC was performed within 2 days by 15 patients, while four others required up to 2 weeks to master CIC. However, three of the four patients (all older girls) who needed 2 weeks to learn the technique did not tolerate CIC and discontinued it within 3 weeks. Four other adolescents (three girls and one boy) refused to learn CIC. Of the 16 patients remaining on CIC only three had cystitis; no patient had a febrile UTI. Once successfully instituted, all patients became continent while on CIC. Six boys (mean follow-up 4 months) had a marked decrease in their PVR. CIC was discontinued in three girls who voided normally to emptiness within 6 months of starting CIC; they remained dry and infection-free 16 months (two) and 6 years later.
CONCLUSION: CIC is a viable therapeutic option for the treatment of dysfunctional voiding, associated with a large PVR, in the absence of any neurological abnormality. CIC is well tolerated in the sensate patient and provides a means for expeditiously achieving continence and improving bladder emptying cost-effectively.
Department of Urology, Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. email@example.com