Medline ® Abstract for Reference 71
of 'Management of bladder dysfunction in children'
Sacral neuromodulation for the dysfunctional elimination syndrome: a 10-year single-center experience with 105 consecutive children.
Dwyer ME, Vandersteen DR, Hollatz P, Reinberg YE
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate our initial experience using sacral neuromodulation via implanted pulse generator as a treatment for children with dysfunctional elimination syndrome and symptoms refractory to maximum medical therapy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: There were 105 consecutive patients who underwent a 2-stage procedure with a trial period (n = 89) or a single procedure (n = 16) for device implantation. They were followed up prospectively for a median of 2.72 years (average, 3.18 years; range, 0.01-9.63 years) for symptom improvement and resolution.
RESULTS: Nearly all children (99 of 105 [94%]) experienced improvement of at least 1 symptom; 12 of 105 patients (11%) had at least 1 symptom worsen. Urinary incontinence, constipation, frequency and/or urgency, and nocturnal enuresis improved in 89 of 101 (88%), 73 of 92 (79%), 54 of 81 (67%), and 59 of 89 (66%) children, respectively, and resolved in 41 of 101 (41%), 37 of 92 (40%), 23 of 81 (28%), and 25 of 89 (28%) children, respectively. Outcomes among patients who did and did not undergo the trial were not significantly different (P = .19-1.00), and only 2 of 88 patients did not undergo permanent implantation. Reoperations (n = 85) occurred in 59 of 105 children (56%), mainly for device malfunction (n = 42), whereas explantation was performed in 36 of 104 children (35%) at an average of 2.68 years since implantation (median, 2.36 years; range, 0.03-9.04 years), mainly for complete symptom resolution (n = 12). Explantation for any reason was less common after single-stage procedures (1 of 16 [6%]vs 35 of 88 [40%]patients; P = .01).
CONCLUSION: Sacral neuromodulation should be considered for children with dysfunctional elimination syndrome whose symptoms are refractory to maximum medical therapy understanding that the risk of reoperation is>50%. Elimination of the trial period reduces the number of general anesthetics without sacrificing outcomes.
Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Rochester, MN. Electronic address: email@example.com.