Medline ® Abstract for Reference 52
of 'Management of bladder dysfunction in children'
Biofeedback therapy for children with dysfunctional voiding.
Combs AJ, Glassberg AD, Gerdes D, Horowitz M
OBJECTIVES: Biofeedback therapy has been recognized as a treatment option for children with classic dysfunctional voiding (DV) where there is inadequate pelvic floor relaxation during voiding. However, there are few articles that discuss methodology and limited sites where it is available. In the hope of making biofeedback a more practical and accessible option, we report our indications, easy to duplicate methodology, and results.
METHODS: Twenty-one consecutive children diagnosed with DV refractory to standard therapy were enrolled in our biofeedback program. Therapy consisted of extensive age-appropriate explanations of DV and demonstrations of normal and abnormal voiding patterns. Cyclic uroflow studies with pelvic floor electromyography are performed, which the child monitors on analog chart and audio recorders. The child returns weekly until consistent relaxation of the pelvic floor during voiding is demonstrated. Timing between sessions is then increased to monitor progress and retention of concepts previously taught.
RESULTS: An excellent clinical response was one in which there was consistent relaxation of the pelvic floor throughout voiding, normal flow pattern, and no residual urine volume (urodynamic response), coupled with profound resolution of voiding symptoms. Seventeen of 21 (81%) had an excellent response, 3 (14%) had a fair response, and 1 (5%) was too inconsistent to rate. The average number of sessions to achieve a consistent urodynamic response was 3.7 (range 2 to 14) and full clinical response somewhat longer. Average follow-up since beginning therapy has been 34 months (range 14 to 51).
CONCLUSIONS: Biofeedback therapy is an effective method for treating DV with poor pelvic floor relaxation. Although initially labor intensive, it yields sustained positive results in most patients in a short time.
Division of Pediatric Urology, State University of New York, Health Science Center at Brooklyn, USA.