Medline ® Abstract for Reference 36
of 'Management of bladder dysfunction in children'
Retrospective analysis of efficacy and tolerability of tolterodine in children with overactive bladder.
Raes A, Hoebeke P, Segaert I, Van Laecke E, Dehoorne J, Vande Walle J
Eur Urol. 2004;45(2):240.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of tolterodine in children with an overactive bladder, treated in a single incontinence centre.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a database of a total of two hundred and fifty-six patients (175 boys and 81 girls, age range 3 years to 17 years, mean age 8.33 years) with urodynamically confirmed bladder overactivity was performed. All children received tolterodine tartrate (dose range of 0.5-4 mg orally). In group I (n=205) tolterodine tartrate replaced anticholinergic drugs (AC) (oxybutinin chloride or oxyphencyclimin hydrochloride). A subgroup of patients switched because of intolerance due to serious adverse events (60.4%) or because of lack of improvement in micturition variables (39.6%). In group II tolterodine was prescribed as initial therapy (n=51). Tolerability was assessed by a standardised questionnaire on adverse events at every outdoor clinic visit. Efficacy assessment was based on micturition diary variables, mean change of maximum bladder capacity and number of incontinence episodes/24 h.
RESULTS: The mean treatment time was 9.32 months with a range from 1.5 months to 23.4 months. The final dose was 0.1mg/kg orally daily divided into two doses. In group I central nervous system disorders (81%) were the most common adverse events, 26.2% showed flushing, 12.2% accommodation problems and 25.2% had gastrointestinal complaints (constipation, encopresis, abdominal pain). Withdrawal of the non-selective antimuscarinic drug resulted in total recovery from adverse events. Introduction of tolterodine in group I and II caused no serious adverse events. Nine patients (3.5%) reported side-effects and only two discontinued treatment. There were no reports of flushing, troubles of visual accommodation, hyperpyrexia. In group I we observed a mean decrease in urgency by 38.7%, a mean increase in maximal bladder capacity by 33.6% and the number of incontinence episodes decreased by 64.8%. In group II we observed equivalent values with a significant (p<0.001) change in maximal bladder capacity (49.7%), incontinence episodes (64.8%) and micturition episodes/24 h.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this retrospective analysis suggest that tolterodine is well tolerated in children and offers an effective treatment for urinary symptoms due to overactive bladder. Tolterodine is superior to non-selective antimuscarinic drugs, with respect to adverse events, allowing more compliance and more effective treatment in children.
Department of Paediatrics, Paediatric Uro-Nephrological Centre, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan185, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. ann.raes@Ugent.be