Medline ® Abstracts for References 2,3
of 'Management and prognosis of patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation'
Weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation.
Nevins ML, Epstein SK
Clin Chest Med. 2001;22(1):13.
The development of weaning failure and need for PMV is multifactorial in origin, involving disorders of pulmonary mechanics and complications associated with critical illness. The underlying disease process is clearly important when discussing mechanisms of ventilator dependence; interventions therefore must be tailored to individual patients. Unfortunately, the main conclusion that can be drawn from the sum of the studies investigating patients on PMV to date is that an evidence-based approach to weaning is not possible and more research needs to be done. New studies need to incorporate severity-of-illness scores and an assessment of principal and comorbid conditions to allow for comparison of the findings from different centers. The best approach to a patient requiring PMV after exclusion of easily treatable conditions is not known. The literature regarding both acute and chronic cases suggests that a systematic approach to weaning involving the participation of multiple caregivers, including nurses, physicians, and respiratory, physical, and speech therapists facilitates liberation from MV. Although a gradual decrement in ventilator support would seem prudent, Scheinhorn et al have begun to identify a subpopulation of patients who can tolerate an acceleration of the weaning process. Given the known complications associated with MV, it is crucial that further research be performed to identify patients as soon as they are capable of breathing spontaneously. The literature demonstrates through multiple studies that satisfactory patient outcomes are attainable and can be achieved at LTAC facilities in a more cost-effective manner than in an ICU setting. The trend toward the concentration of patients into specialized regional weaning centers should facilitate the research process and continue to improve outcomes in this population.
Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Group Health Permanente, Seattle, Washington, USA.
Prolonged mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients: epidemiology, outcomes and modelling the potential cost consequences of establishing a regional weaning unit.
Lone NI, Walsh TS
Crit Care. 2011;15(2):R102. Epub 2011 Mar 27.
INTRODUCTION: The number of patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) is likely to increase. Transferring patients to specialised weaning units may improve outcomes and reduce costs. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence and outcomes of PMV in a UK administrative health care region without a dedicated weaning unit, and model the potential impact of establishing a dedicated weaning unit.
METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken using a database of admissions to three intensive care units (ICU) in a UK region from 2002 to 2006. Using a 21 day cut-off to define PMV, incidence was calculated using all ICU admissions and ventilated ICU admissions as denominators. Outcomes for the PMV cohort (mortality and hospital resource use) were compared with the non-PMV cohort. Length of ICU stay beyond 21 days was used to model the effect of establishing a weaning unit in terms of unit occupancy rates, admission refusal rates, and healthcare costs.
RESULTS: Out of 8290 ICU admission episodes, 7848 were included in the analysis. Mechanical ventilation was required during 5552 admission episodes, of which 349 required PMV. The incidence of PMV was 4.4 per 100 ICU admissions, and 6.3 per 100 ventilated ICU admissions. PMV patients used 29.1% of all general ICU bed days, spent longer in hospital after ICU discharge than non-PMV patients (median 17 vs 7 days, P<0.001) and had higher hospital mortality (40.3% vs 33.8%, P = 0.02). For the region, in which about 70 PMV patients were treated each year, a weaning unit with a capacity of three beds appeared most cost efficient, resulting in an occupancy rate of 73%, admission refusal rate at 21 days of 36%, and potential cost saving of£344,000 (€418,000) using UK healthcare tariffs.
CONCLUSIONS: One in every sixteen ventilated patients requires PMV in our region and this group use a substantial amount of health care resource. Establishing a weaning unit would potentially reduce acute bed occupancy by 8-10% and could reduce overall treatment costs. Restructuring the current configuration of critical care services to introduce weaning units should be considered if the expected increase in PMV incidence occurs.
Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Old Medical School, Teviot Place, Edinburgh, EH8 9AG, UK. email@example.com