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Malassezia infection

Authors
Denis Spelman, MBBS, FRACP, FRCPA, MPH
CO Morrissey, MB, BCh, FRACP, Grad Dip (Clin Epi), PhD
Section Editor
Carol A Kauffman, MD
Deputy Editor
Anna R Thorner, MD

INTRODUCTION

Malassezia (formerly known as Pityrosporum) species are members of human cutaneous commensal flora, which are associated with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations from benign skin conditions, such as tinea versicolor, to fungemia in the immunocompromised host [1-4].

The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of Malassezia infections will be discussed here. The clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of tinea versicolor are discussed elsewhere. (See "Tinea versicolor (Pityriasis versicolor)".)

MYCOLOGY

Malassezia are lipophilic yeasts that are constituents of the normal human skin flora. These organisms have been classified into at least 14 species, including M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. sympodialis, M. slooffiae, M. obtusa, M. globosa, and M. restricta, based upon polymerase chain reaction and restriction endonuclease analysis [2,5-7].

EPIDEMIOLOGY

Malassezia species mainly colonize the skin and occasionally the respiratory tract [7,8]. The organisms appear to become part of the normal skin flora by three to six months of age. M. furfur was recovered from the skin in 32 to 64 percent of neonates in neonatal intensive care units in two separate series [9,10]. In one study, duration of stay in the unit and gestational age were factors favoring skin colonization [9].

Colonization of the skin with Malassezia and subsequent extension to central venous catheters appears more common in neonates than adults. M. furfur was recovered from the lumen in 32 percent of percutaneous central venous catheters in a neonatal intensive care unit in one series [10] but not from the insertion sites in 928 adults receiving total parenteral nutrition [11].

       

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Literature review current through: Jul 2015. | This topic last updated: May 4, 2015.
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