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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 10

of 'Maintenance fluid therapy in children'

Prevention of hyponatremia during maintenance intravenous fluid administration: a prospective randomized study of fluid type versus fluid rate.
Neville KA, Sandeman DJ, Rubinstein A, Henry GM, McGlynn M, Walker JL
J Pediatr. 2010;156(2):313. Epub 2009 Oct 9.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the importance of sodium content versus administration rate of intravenous fluids in the development of hyponatremia in postoperative children.
STUDY DESIGN: In this prospective, randomized, nonblinded study, 124 children admitted for surgery received 0.9% (NS) or 0.45% (N/2) saline solution at 100% or 50% maintenance rates. Plasma electrolytes, osmolality, and ADH at induction of anesthesia were compared with values 8 hours (T(8)), and 24 hours (T(24); n = 67) after surgery. Blood glucose and ketones were measured every 4 hours. Electrolytes and osmolality were measured in urine samples.
RESULTS: Plasma sodium concentrations fell in both N/2 groups at T(8) (100%: -1.5 +/- 2.3 mmol/L 50%: -1.9 +/- 2.0 mmol/L; P<.01) with hyponatremia more common than in the NS groups at T(8) (30% vs 10%; P = .02) but not T(24). Median plasma antidiuretic hormone concentrations increased 2- to 4-fold during surgery (P<or = .001) and only reattained levels atinduction of anesthesia by T(24) in the N/2 100% group. On multiple linear regression analysis, fluid type, not rate determined risk of hyponatremia (P<.04). Two children on 100% developed SIADH (1NS). Fourteen (23%; 7NS) on 50% maintenance were assessed as dehydrated. Dextrose content was increased in 18 for hypoglycemia or ketosis.
CONCLUSIONS: The risk of hyponatremia was decreased by isotonic saline solution but not fluid restriction.
Department of Endocrinology, Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick, Australia; School of Women's&Children's Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.