Magnetic resonance imaging of the hepatobiliary tract
- Umaprasanna S Karnam, MD
Umaprasanna S Karnam, MD
- Jordan Valley Hospital
- West Jordan, UT
- Jonathan B Kruskal, MD, PhD
Jonathan B Kruskal, MD, PhD
- Section Editor — Kidney Disease
- Professor of Radiology
- Harvard Medical School
- K Rajender Reddy, MD
K Rajender Reddy, MD
- Ruimy Family President's Distinguished Professor of Medicine
- Professor of Medicine in Surgery
- Director of Hepatology
- Director, Viral Hepatitis Center
- Medical Director of Liver Transplantation
- University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
- Section Editor
- Sanjiv Chopra, MD, MACP
Sanjiv Chopra, MD, MACP
- Editor-in-Chief — Gastroenterology/Hepatology
- Section Editor — General Hepatology
- Section Editor — Gallbladder and Biliary Tract Disease
- Professor of Medicine
- Harvard Medical School
- Senior Consultant in Hepatology
- James Tullis Firm Chief
- Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has rapidly become an important tool in the investigation of patients with hepatobiliary disease, particularly for the characterization and staging of liver lesions seen on other imaging tests. MRI also has a role as a noninvasive means of imaging the biliary tree. (See "Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography".)
MRI uses a strong magnetic field to align rotating hydrogen protons within the tissue being imaged. During realignment of the protons, energy is released and sampled at different time intervals. The measured signal intensity from this energy depends upon the degree and rate of realignment within a very specific time period, which in turn depends upon the water and fat content of the different tissues. These signals are then converted into gray scale cross-sectional images that can be depicted in multiple planes or in three dimensions .
The T1 and T2 relaxation times are important parameters determining image and lesion contrast with reference to normal liver parenchyma.
●The T1 relaxation time (and the resulting T1-weighted image) refers to the time required for protons to fully realign within an external magnetic field following exposure to a radio wave pulse of specific strength and duration
●The T2 relaxation time (and the resulting T2-weighted image) describes the rate at which protons are put out of phase with respect to adjacent protons
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